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Controlled Airspace


The aircraft is operated by a student pilot

or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot

certification and has met the requirements of 14 CFR

Section 61.95.


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each

person operating a large turbine engine-powered

airplane to or from a primary airport must operate at

or above the designated floors while within the lateral

limits of Class B airspace.


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each

aircraft must be equipped as follows:


For IFR operations, an operable VOR or

TACAN receiver; and


For all operations, a two-way radio

capable of communications with ATC on appropriate

frequencies for that area; and


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an

operable radar beacon transponder with automatic

altitude reporting equipment.


ATC may, upon notification, immediately authorize a
deviation from the altitude reporting equipment require-
ment; however, a request for a deviation from the 4096
transponder equipment requirement must be submitted to
the controlling ATC facility at least one hour before the
proposed operation.


AIM, Transponder Operation, Paragraph 4


6. Mode C Veil.

The airspace within 30 nauti-

cal miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1

of 14 CFR Part 91 (generally primary airports within

Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to

10,000 feet MSL. Unless otherwise authorized by

ATC, aircraft operating within this airspace must be

equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting

equipment having Mode C capability.

However, an aircraft that was not originally

certificated with an engine−driven electrical system

or which has not subsequently been certified with a

system installed may conduct operations within a

Mode C veil provided the aircraft remains outside

Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the

ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area

designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL,

whichever is lower.

c. Charts.

Class B airspace is charted on

Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and

Terminal Area Charts.

d. Flight Procedures.

1. Flights.

Aircraft within Class B airspace are

required to operate in accordance with current IFR

procedures. A clearance for a visual approach to a

primary airport is not authorization for turbine−

powered airplanes to operate below the designated

floors of the Class B airspace.

2. VFR Flights.


Arriving aircraft must obtain an ATC

clearance prior to entering Class B airspace and must

contact ATC on the appropriate frequency, and in

relation to geographical fixes shown on local charts.

Although a pilot may be operating beneath the floor

of the Class B airspace on initial contact,

communications with ATC should be established in

relation to the points indicated for spacing and

sequencing purposes.


Departing aircraft require a clearance to

depart Class B airspace and should advise the

clearance delivery position of their intended altitude

and route of flight. ATC will normally advise VFR

aircraft when leaving the geographical limits of the

Class B airspace. Radar service is not automatically

terminated with this advisory unless specifically

stated by the controller.


Aircraft not landing or departing the

primary airport may obtain an ATC clearance to

transit the Class B airspace when traffic conditions

permit and provided the requirements of 14 CFR

Section 91.131 are met. Such VFR aircraft are

encouraged, to the extent possible, to operate at

altitudes above or below the Class B airspace or

transit through established VFR corridors. Pilots

operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency

122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position


e. ATC Clearances and Separation.


clearance is required to enter and operate within

Class B airspace. VFR pilots are provided sequenc-

ing and separation from other aircraft while operating

within Class B airspace.


AIM, Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft, Paragraph 4


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