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En Route Procedures


The exchange of information between an aircraft and an
ARTCC through an FSS is quicker than relay via company
radio because the FSS has direct interphone lines to the
responsible ARTCC sector. Accordingly, when circum-
stances dictate a choice between the two, during an
ARTCC frequency outage, relay via FSS radio is



2. Position Reporting

The safety and effectiveness of traffic control

depends to a large extent on accurate position

reporting. In order to provide the proper separation

and expedite aircraft movements, ATC must be able

to make accurate estimates of the progress of every

aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan.

a. Position Identification.


When a position report is to be made passing

a VOR radio facility, the time reported should be the

time at which the first complete reversal of the

“to/from” indicator is accomplished.


When a position report is made passing a

facility by means of an airborne ADF, the time

reported should be the time at which the indicator

makes a complete reversal.


When an aural or a light panel indication is

used to determine the time passing a reporting point,

such as a fan marker, Z marker, cone of silence or

intersection of range courses, the time should be

noted when the signal is first received and again when

it ceases. The mean of these two times should then be

taken as the actual time over the fix.


If a position is given with respect to distance

and direction from a reporting point, the distance and

direction should be computed as accurately as



Except for terminal area transition purposes,

position reports or navigation with reference to aids

not established for use in the structure in which flight

is being conducted will not normally be required by


b. Position Reporting Points.

CFRs require

pilots to maintain a listening watch on the appropriate

frequency and, unless operating under the provisions

of subparagraph c, to furnish position reports passing

certain reporting points. Reporting points are

indicated by symbols on en route charts. The

designated compulsory reporting point symbol is a
solid triangle  

  and the “on request” reporting

point symbol is the open triangle  

. Reports

passing an “on request” reporting point are only

necessary when requested by ATC.

c. Position Reporting Requirements.

1. Flights Along Airways or Routes.


position report is required by all flights regardless of

altitude, including those operating in accordance with

an ATC clearance specifying “VFR−on−top,” over

each designated compulsory reporting point along the

route being flown.

2. Flights Along a Direct Route.


of the altitude or flight level being flown, including

flights operating in accordance with an ATC

clearance specifying “VFR−on−top,” pilots must

report over each reporting point used in the flight plan

to define the route of flight.

3. Flights in a Radar Environment.


informed by ATC that their aircraft are in “Radar

Contact,” pilots should discontinue position reports

over designated reporting points. They should

resume normal position reporting when ATC advises


4. Flights in an Oceanic (Non-radar) Envir-


 Pilots must report over each point used in

the flight plan to define the route of flight, even if the

point is depicted on aeronautical charts as an “on

request” (non-compulsory) reporting point. For

aircraft providing automatic position reporting via an

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract

(ADS-C) logon, pilots should discontinue voice

position reports.


ATC will inform pilots that they are in “radar contact”:

(a) when their aircraft is initially identified in the ATC

system; and

(b) when radar identification is reestablished after

radar service has been terminated or radar contact lost.
Subsequent to being advised that the controller has
established radar contact, this fact will not be repeated to
the pilot when handed off to another controller. At times,
the aircraft identity will be confirmed by the receiving
controller; however, this should not be construed to mean
that radar contact has been lost. The identity of
transponder equipped aircraft will be confirmed by asking
the pilot to “ident,” “squawk standby,” or to change codes.
Aircraft without transponders will be advised of their
position to confirm identity. In this case, the pilot is

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