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Controlled Airspace

g. Ultralight Vehicles. No person may operate an

ultralight vehicle within Class A, Class B, Class C, or

Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of

the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an

airport unless that person has prior authorization from

the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that

airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 103.)

h. Unmanned Free Balloons. Unless otherwise

authorized by ATC, no person may operate an

unmanned free balloon below 2,000 feet above the

surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B,

Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for

an airport. (See 14 CFR Part 101.)

i. Parachute Jumps. No person may make a

parachute jump, and no pilot−in−command may

allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft,

in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D

airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an

ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having

jurisdiction over the airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 105.)

3−2−2. Class A Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from

18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600,

including the airspace overlying the waters within

12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous

States and Alaska; and designated international

airspace beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of the

48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of

domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar

coverage, and within which domestic procedures are


b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment

Requirements. Unless otherwise authorized, all

persons must operate their aircraft under IFR.  (See

14 CFR Section 71.33 and 14 CFR Section 91.167

through 14 CFR Section 91.193.)

c. Charts. Class A airspace is not specifically


3−2−3. Class B Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the

surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s

busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or

passenger enplanements. The configuration of each

Class B airspace area is individually tailored and

consists of a surface area and two or more layers

(some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down

wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all

published instrument procedures once an aircraft

enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for

all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that

are so cleared receive separation services within the

airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR

operations is “clear of clouds.”

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment

Requirements for VFR Operations. Regardless of

weather conditions, an ATC clearance is required

prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots

should not request a clearance to operate within

Class B airspace unless the requirements of 14 CFR

Section 91.215 and 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met.

Included among these requirements are:

1. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft

must be equipped with an operable two-way radio

capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate

frequencies for that Class B airspace.

2. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft

at the following primary airports within Class B

airspace unless the pilot−in−command holds at least

a private pilot certificate:

(a) Andrews Air Force Base, MD
(b) Atlanta Hartsfield Airport, GA
(c) Boston Logan Airport, MA
(d) Chicago O’Hare Intl. Airport, IL
(e) Dallas/Fort Worth Intl. Airport, TX
(f) Los Angeles Intl. Airport, CA
(g) Miami Intl. Airport, FL
(h) Newark Intl. Airport, NJ
(i) New York Kennedy Airport, NY
(j) New York La Guardia Airport, NY
(k) Ronald Reagan Washington National

Airport, DC

(l) San Francisco Intl. Airport, CA

3. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft

at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil

aircraft within Class B airspace unless:

(a) The pilot−in−command holds at least a

private pilot certificate; or