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Controlled Airspace


The aircraft is operated by a student pilot

or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot
certification and has met the requirements of 14 CFR
Section 61.95.


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each

person operating a large turbine engine-powered
airplane to or from a primary airport must operate at
or above the designated floors while within the lateral
limits of Class B airspace.


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each

aircraft must be equipped as follows:


For IFR operations, an operable VOR or

TACAN receiver or an operable and suitable RNAV
system; and


For all operations, a two-way radio

capable of communications with ATC on appropriate
frequencies for that area; and


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an

operable radar beacon transponder with automatic
altitude reporting equipment.


ATC may, upon notification, immediately authorize a
deviation from the altitude reporting equipment require-
ment; however, a request for a deviation from the 4096
transponder equipment requirement must be submitted to
the controlling ATC facility at least one hour before the
proposed operation.


AIM, Paragraph 4

−1−20 , Transponder Operation

6. Mode C Veil.

The airspace within 30 nauti-

cal miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1
of 14 CFR Part 91 (generally primary airports within
Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to
10,000 feet MSL. Unless otherwise authorized by
ATC, aircraft operating within this airspace must be
equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting
equipment having Mode C capability.

However, an aircraft that was not originally
certificated with an engine

−driven electrical system

or which has not subsequently been certified with a
system installed may conduct operations within a
Mode C veil provided the aircraft remains outside
Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the
ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area
designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL,
whichever is lower.

c. Charts.

Class B airspace is charted on

Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and
Terminal Area Charts.

d. Flight Procedures.

1. Flights.

Aircraft within Class B airspace are

required to operate in accordance with current IFR
procedures. A clearance for a visual approach to a
primary airport is not authorization for turbine

powered airplanes to operate below the designated
floors of the Class B airspace.

2. VFR Flights.


Arriving aircraft must obtain an ATC

clearance prior to entering Class B airspace and must
contact ATC on the appropriate frequency, and in
relation to geographical fixes shown on local charts.
Although a pilot may be operating beneath the floor
of the Class B airspace on initial contact,
communications with ATC should be established in
relation to the points indicated for spacing and
sequencing purposes.


Departing aircraft require a clearance to

depart Class B airspace and should advise the
clearance delivery position of their intended altitude
and route of flight. ATC will normally advise VFR
aircraft when leaving the geographical limits of the
Class B airspace. Radar service is not automatically
terminated with this advisory unless specifically
stated by the controller.


Aircraft not landing or departing the

primary airport may obtain an ATC clearance to
transit the Class B airspace when traffic conditions
permit and provided the requirements of 14 CFR
Section 91.131 are met. Such VFR aircraft are
encouraged, to the extent possible, to operate at
altitudes above or below the Class B airspace or
transit through established VFR corridors. Pilots
operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency
122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position

e. ATC Clearances and Separation.


clearance is required to enter and operate within
Class B airspace. VFR pilots are provided sequenc-
ing and separation from other aircraft while operating
within Class B airspace.


AIM, Paragraph 4

−1−18 , Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft