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Controlled Airspace


1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be
suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is
dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the
service is not available and issued wind, runway
information and the time or place to contact the tower.

2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during
CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to
the primary airport will be provided on a workload
permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when center
radar presentation (CENRAP) is in use.


VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR

aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a
minimum of:


Target resolution, or


500 feet vertical separation, or


Visual separation.


VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR

aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets
by no less than:





 miles lateral separation, or


500 feet vertical separation, or


Visual separation.


This program is not to be interpreted as

relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and
avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather
conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path
as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to
maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clear-
ance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or
better than the minimums required by 14 CFR
Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised
and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when
compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or
altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility
with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance,
vortex exposure, and weather minimums.


ATC may assign altitudes to VFR aircraft that

do not conform to 14 CFR Section 91.159.
will be broadcast when the altitude assignment is no
longer needed for separation or when leaving Class B
airspace. Pilots must return to an altitude that
conforms to 14 CFR Section 91.159.

f. Proximity operations.

VFR aircraft operating

in proximity to Class B airspace are cautioned against

operating too closely to the boundaries, especially
where the floor of the Class B airspace is 3,000 feet
or less above the surface or where VFR cruise
altitudes are at or near the floor of higher levels.
Observance of this precaution will reduce the
potential for encountering an aircraft operating at the
altitudes of Class B floors. Additionally, VFR aircraft
are encouraged to utilize the VFR Planning Chart as
a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B
airspace. Charted VFR Flyway Planning Charts are
published on the back of the existing VFR Terminal
Area Charts.


−2−4. Class C Airspace

a. Definition.

Generally, that airspace from the

surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have
an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar
approach control, and that have a certain number of
IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although
the configuration of each Class C airspace area is
individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of
a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the
surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation,
and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower
than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport

b. Charts.

Class C airspace is charted on

Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and
Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.

c. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment


1. Pilot Certification.

No specific certifica-

tion required.

2. Equipment.


Two-way radio; and


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an

operable radar beacon transponder with automatic
altitude reporting equipment.


See paragraph 4

−1−20, Transponder Operation, subpara-

graph f2(c) for Mode C transponder requirements for
operating above Class C airspace.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Require-


Two-way radio communication must be

established with the ATC facility providing ATC
services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those
communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of