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Controlled Airspace



Roanoke . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional/Woodrum Field


Point Roberts . . . . . . . . Vancouver International
Spokane . . . . . . . . . . . . Fairchild AFB
Spokane . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Whidbey Island . . . . . . . NAS, Ault Field


Charleston . . . . . . . . . . . Yeager


Green Bay . . . . . . . . . . . Austin Straubel International
Madison . . . . . . . . . . . . Dane County Regional



Milwaukee . . . . . . . . . . General Mitchell International


−2−5. Class D Airspace

a. Definition.

Generally, Class D airspace ex-

tends upward from the surface to 2,500 feet above the
airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those
airports that have an operational control tower. The
configuration of each Class D airspace area is
individually tailored and when instrument proce-
dures are published, the airspace will normally be
designed to contain the procedures.


Class D surface areas may be designated as

full-time (24 hour tower operations) or part-time.
Part-time Class D effective times are published in the
Chart Supplement U.S.


Where a Class D surface area is part-time, the

airspace may revert to either a Class E surface area
(see paragraph 3

−2−6e1) or Class G airspace. When

a part–time Class D surface area changes to Class G,
the surface area becomes Class G airspace up to, but
not including, the overlying controlled airspace.


1. The airport listing in the Chart Supplement U.S. will
state the part–time surface area status (for example, “other
times CLASS E” or “other times CLASS G”).

2. Normally, the overlying controlled airspace is the Class
E transition area airspace that begins at either 700 feet
AGL (charted as magenta vignette) or 1200 feet AGL
(charted as blue vignette). This may be determined by
consulting the applicable VFR Sectional or Terminal Area

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment


1. Pilot Certification.

No specific certifica-

tion required.

2. Equipment.

Unless otherwise authorized

by ATC, an operable two

−way radio is required.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry



−way radio communication

must be established with the ATC facility providing
ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain
those communications while in the Class D airspace.
Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the control
tower on the publicized frequency and give their
position, altitude, destination, and any request(s).
Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the
Class D airspace boundary to preclude entering the
Class D airspace before two

−way radio communica-

tions are established.


1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, “[aircraft
callsign] standby,” radio communications have been
established and the pilot can enter the Class D airspace.

2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate
entry into Class D airspace, the controller will inform the
pilot to remain outside the Class D airspace until
conditions permit entry.


1. “[Aircraft callsign] remain outside the Class Delta
airspace and standby.”
It is important to understand that if the controller responds
to the initial radio call without using the aircraft callsign,
radio communications have not been established and the
pilot may not enter the Class D airspace.

2. “Aircraft calling Manassas tower standby.”
At those airports where the control tower does not operate
24 hours a day, the operating hours of the tower will be
listed on the appropriate charts and in the Chart
Supplement U.S. During the hours the tower is not in
operation, the Class E surface area rules or a combination
of Class E rules to 700 feet above ground level and Class
G rules to the surface will become applicable. Check the
Chart Supplement U.S. for specifics.

4. Departures from:


A primary or satellite airport with an

operating control tower. Two-way radio communica-
tions must be established and maintained with the
control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC
while operating in the Class D airspace.


A satellite airport without an operating

control tower. Two-way radio communications must
be established as soon as practicable after departing
with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the
Class D airspace as soon as practicable after