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Other Airspace Areas

4. Protect declared national disasters for

humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR

Section 91.138).

5. Protect the President, Vice President, or other

public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141).

6. Provide a safe environment for space agency

operations (14 CFR Section 91.143).

c. Except for hijacking situations, when the

provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or (a)(2)

are necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will

only be established by or through the area manager at

the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)

having jurisdiction over the area concerned. A

temporary flight restrictions NOTAM involving the

conditions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) will be

issued at the direction of the service area office

director having oversight of the airspace concerned.

When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary

flight restrictions area will be implemented through

the TSA Aviation Command Center. The appropriate

FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a

request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions

area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1).

d. The FAA accepts recommendations for the

establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area

under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military

major command headquarters, regional directors of

the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil Defense

State Directors, State Governors, or other similar

authority. For the situations involving 14 CFR

Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts recommenda-

tions from military commanders serving as regional,

subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR) coordina-

tors; by military commanders directing or

coordinating air operations associated with disaster

relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating

organized relief air operations (includes representa-

tives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S.

Forest Service, and State aeronautical agencies).

Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight

restrictions establishment under 14 CFR

Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or

by State, county, or city government entities.

e. The type of restrictions issued will be kept to a

minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement of

the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the

extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)

include, but are not limited to: toxic gas leaks or

spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by

rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or

property on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft

could endanger persons or property in the air;

imminent volcano eruptions which could endanger

airborne aircraft and occupants; nuclear accident or

incident; and hijackings. Situations which warrant

the restrictions associated with 14 CFR Sec-

tion 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which are

being fought by releasing fire retardants from

aircraft; and aircraft relief activities following a

disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR

Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for

events and incidents that would attract an unsafe

congestion of sightseeing aircraft.

f. The amount of airspace needed to protect

persons and property or provide a safe environment

for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally

limited to within 2,000 feet above the surface and

within a 3−nautical−mile radius. Incidents occurring

within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will

normally be handled through existing procedures and

should not require the issuance of a temporary flight

restrictions NOTAM. Temporary flight restrictions

affecting airspace outside of the U.S. and its

territories and possessions are issued with verbiage

excluding that airspace outside of the 12−mile coastal


g. The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the

“coordination facility.” When FAA communications

assistance is required, the designated FSS will

function as the primary communications facility for

coordination between emergency control authorities

and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison

for the emergency control authorities if adequate

communications cannot be established between the

designated FSS and the relief organization. For

example, the coordination facility may relay

authorizations from the on-scene emergency re-

sponse official in cases where news media aircraft

operations are approved at the altitudes used by relief


h. ATC may authorize operations in a temporary

flight restrictions area under its own authority only

when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR

Section 91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate

ARTCC/airport traffic control tower manager will,

however, ensure that such authorized flights do not

hamper activities or interfere with the event for which

restrictions were implemented. However, ATC will