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Radio Communications Phraseology

b. To convert from Standard Time to Coordinated

Universal Time:

TBL 4−2−3

Standard Time to Coordinated Universal Time

Eastern Standard Time . . . . . . . . .

Central Standard Time . . . . . . . . .

Mountain Standard Time . . . . . . .

Pacific Standard Time . . . . . . . . .

Alaska Standard Time . . . . . . . . .

Hawaii Standard Time . . . . . . . . .

Add 5 hours

Add 6 hours

Add 7 hours

Add 8 hours

Add 9 hours

Add 10 hours


For daylight time, subtract 1 hour.

c. A reference may be made to local daylight or

standard time utilizing the 24−hour clock system. The

hour is indicated by the first two figures and the

minutes by the last two figures.



zero zero zero zero

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


zero niner two zero

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

d. Time may be stated in minutes only

(two figures) in radiotelephone communications

when no misunderstanding is likely to occur.

e. Current time in use at a station is stated in the

nearest quarter minute in order that pilots may use this

information for time checks. Fractions of a quarter

minute less than 8 seconds are stated as the preceding

quarter minute; fractions of a quarter minute of

8 seconds or more are stated as the succeeding quarter




time, zero niner two niner

. . . . . .


time, zero niner two niner and 

. . . . . .


4−2−13. Communications with Tower when

Aircraft Transmitter or Receiver or Both are


a. Arriving Aircraft.

1. Receiver inoperative.

(a) If you have reason to believe your receiver

is inoperative, remain outside or above the Class D

surface area until the direction and flow of traffic has

been determined; then, advise the tower of your type

aircraft, position, altitude, intention to land, and

request that you be controlled with light signals.


AIM, Paragraph 4−3−13 , Traffic Control Light Signals

(b) When you are approximately 3 to 5 miles

from the airport, advise the tower of your position and

join the airport traffic pattern. From this point on,

watch the tower for light signals. Thereafter, if a

complete pattern is made, transmit your position

downwind and/or turning base leg.

2. Transmitter inoperative. Remain outside

or above the Class D surface area until the direction

and flow of traffic has been determined; then, join the

airport traffic pattern. Monitor the primary local

control frequency as depicted on Sectional Charts for

landing or traffic information, and look for a light

signal which may be addressed to your aircraft.

During hours of daylight, acknowledge tower

transmissions or light signals by rocking your wings.

At night, acknowledge by blinking the landing or

navigation lights. To acknowledge tower transmis-

sions during daylight hours, hovering helicopters will

turn in the direction of the controlling facility and

flash the landing light. While in flight, helicopters

should show their acknowledgement of receiving a

transmission by making shallow banks in opposite

directions. At night, helicopters will acknowledge

receipt of transmissions by flashing either the landing

or the search light.

3. Transmitter and receiver inoperative.

Remain outside or above the Class D surface area

until the direction and flow of traffic has been

determined; then, join the airport traffic pattern and

maintain visual contact with the tower to receive light

signals. Acknowledge light signals as noted above.

b. Departing Aircraft. If you experience radio

failure prior to leaving the parking area, make every

effort to have the equipment repaired. If you are

unable to have the malfunction repaired, call the

tower by telephone and request authorization to

depart without two-way radio communications. If

tower authorization is granted, you will be given

departure information and requested to monitor the

tower frequency or watch for light signals as

appropriate. During daylight hours, acknowledge

tower transmissions or light signals by moving the

ailerons or rudder. At night, acknowledge by blinking

the landing or navigation lights. If radio malfunction