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AIM

10/12/17

4

−3−16

Airport Operations

4

−3−10. Intersection Takeoffs

a.

In order to enhance airport capacities, reduce

taxiing distances, minimize departure delays, and
provide for more efficient movement of air traffic,
controllers may initiate intersection takeoffs as well
as approve them when the pilot requests. If for ANY
reason a pilot prefers to use a different intersection or
the full length of the runway or desires to obtain the
distance between the intersection and the runway end,
THE PILOT IS EXPECTED TO INFORM ATC
ACCORDINGLY.

b.

Pilots are expected to assess the suitability of an

intersection for use at takeoff during their preflight
planning. They must consider the resultant length
reduction to the published runway length and to the
published declared distances from the intersection
intended to be used for takeoff. The minimum runway
required for takeoff must fall within the reduced
runway length and the reduced declared distances
before the intersection can be accepted for takeoff.

REFERENCE

AIM, Paragraph 4

−3−6 , Use of Runways/Declared Distances

c.

Controllers will issue the measured distance

from the intersection to the runway end rounded
“down” to the nearest 50 feet to any pilot who
requests and to all military aircraft, unless use of the
intersection is covered in appropriate directives.
Controllers, however, will not be able to inform pilots
of the distance from the intersection to the end of any
of the published declared distances.

REFERENCE

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Paragraph 3

−7−1, Ground Traffic Movement

d.

An aircraft is expected to taxi to (but not onto)

the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval
for an intersection departure is received from ground
control.

e.

Pilots should state their position on the airport

when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway
intersection.

EXAMPLE

Cleveland Tower, Apache Three Seven Two Two Papa, at
the intersection of taxiway Oscar and runway two three
right, ready for departure.

f.

Controllers are required to separate small

aircraft that are departing from an intersection on the
same runway (same or opposite direction) behind a
large nonheavy aircraft (except B757), by ensuring
that at least a 3

−minute interval exists between the

time the preceding large aircraft has taken off and the
succeeding small aircraft begins takeoff roll. The
3

−minute separation requirement will also be applied

to small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff
weight of 12,500 pounds or less departing behind a
small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff
weight of more than 12,500 pounds. To inform the
pilot of the required 3

−minute hold, the controller will

state, “Hold for wake turbulence.” If after consider-
ing wake turbulence hazards, the pilot feels that a
lesser time interval is appropriate, the pilot may
request a waiver to the 3

−minute interval. To initiate

such a request, simply say “Request waiver to
3

−minute interval” or a similar statement. Controllers

may then issue a takeoff clearance if other traffic
permits, since the pilot has accepted the responsibility
for wake turbulence separation.

g.

The 3

−minute interval is not required when the

intersection is 500 feet or less from the departure
point of the preceding aircraft and both aircraft are
taking off in the same direction. Controllers may
permit the small aircraft to alter course after takeoff
to avoid the flight path of the preceding departure.

h.

A 4

−minute interval is mandatory for small,

large, and heavy aircraft behind a super aircraft. The
3

−minute interval is mandatory behind a heavy

aircraft in all cases, and for small aircraft behind a
B757.

4

−3−11. Pilot Responsibilities When

Conducting Land and Hold Short
Operations (LAHSO)

a.

LAHSO is an acronym for “Land and Hold

Short Operations.” These operations include landing
and holding short of an intersecting runway, an
intersecting taxiway, or some other designated point
on a runway other than an intersecting runway or
taxiway. (See FIG 4

−3−8, FIG 4−3−9, FIG 4−3−10.)

b. Pilot Responsibilities and Basic Procedures.

1.

LAHSO is an air traffic control procedure that

requires pilot participation to balance the needs for
increased airport capacity and system efficiency,
consistent with safety. This procedure can be done
safely provided pilots and controllers are knowledge-
able and understand their responsibilities. The
following paragraphs outline specific pilot/operator
responsibilities when conducting LAHSO.

2.

At controlled airports, air traffic may clear a

pilot to land and hold short. Pilots may accept such a

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

3/29/18