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Airport Operations

4−3−10. Intersection Takeoffs

a. In order to enhance airport capacities, reduce

taxiing distances, minimize departure delays, and

provide for more efficient movement of air traffic,

controllers may initiate intersection takeoffs as well

as approve them when the pilot requests. If for ANY

reason a pilot prefers to use a different intersection or

the full length of the runway or desires to obtain the

distance between the intersection and the runway end,



b. Pilots are expected to assess the suitability of an

intersection for use at takeoff during their preflight

planning. They must consider the resultant length

reduction to the published runway length and to the

published declared distances from the intersection

intended to be used for takeoff. The minimum runway

required for takeoff must fall within the reduced

runway length and the reduced declared distances

before the intersection can be accepted for takeoff.


AIM, Paragraph 4−3−6 , Use of Runways/Declared Distances

c. Controllers will issue the measured distance

from the intersection to the runway end rounded

“down” to the nearest 50 feet to any pilot who

requests and to all military aircraft, unless use of the

intersection is covered in appropriate directives.

Controllers, however, will not be able to inform pilots

of the distance from the intersection to the end of any

of the published declared distances.


FAA Order JO 7110.65, Paragraph 3−7−1, Ground Traffic Movement

d. An aircraft is expected to taxi to (but not onto)

the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval

for an intersection departure is received from ground


e. Pilots should state their position on the airport

when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway



Cleveland Tower, Apache Three Seven Two Two Papa, at

the intersection of taxiway Oscar and runway two three

right, ready for departure.

f. Controllers are required to separate small

aircraft that are departing from an intersection on the

same runway (same or opposite direction) behind a

large nonheavy aircraft (except B757), by ensuring

that at least a 3−minute interval exists between the

time the preceding large aircraft has taken off and the

succeeding small aircraft begins takeoff roll. The

3−minute separation requirement will also be applied

to small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff

weight of 12,500 pounds or less departing behind a

small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff

weight of more than 12,500 pounds. To inform the

pilot of the required 3−minute hold, the controller will

state, “Hold for wake turbulence.” If after consider-

ing wake turbulence hazards, the pilot feels that a

lesser time interval is appropriate, the pilot may

request a waiver to the 3−minute interval. To initiate

such a request, simply say “Request waiver to

3−minute interval” or a similar statement. Controllers

may then issue a takeoff clearance if other traffic

permits, since the pilot has accepted the responsibility

for wake turbulence separation.

g. The 3−minute interval is not required when the

intersection is 500 feet or less from the departure

point of the preceding aircraft and both aircraft are

taking off in the same direction. Controllers may

permit the small aircraft to alter course after takeoff

to avoid the flight path of the preceding departure.

h. A 4−minute interval is mandatory for small,

large, and heavy aircraft behind a super aircraft. The

3−minute interval is mandatory behind a heavy

aircraft in all cases, and for small aircraft behind a


4−3−11. Pilot Responsibilities When

Conducting Land and Hold Short

Operations (LAHSO)

a. LAHSO is an acronym for “Land and Hold

Short Operations.” These operations include landing

and holding short of an intersecting runway, an

intersecting taxiway, or some other designated point

on a runway other than an intersecting runway or

taxiway. (See FIG 4−3−8, FIG 4−3−9, FIG 4−3−10.)

b. Pilot Responsibilities and Basic Procedures.

1. LAHSO is an air traffic control procedure that

requires pilot participation to balance the needs for

increased airport capacity and system efficiency,

consistent with safety. This procedure can be done

safely provided pilots and controllers are knowledge-

able and understand their responsibilities. The

following paragraphs outline specific pilot/operator

responsibilities when conducting LAHSO.

2. At controlled airports, air traffic may clear a

pilot to land and hold short. Pilots may accept such a


7110.65R CHG 2