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Airport Operations


At those airports where the U.S. Government

operates the control tower and ATC has authorized
noncompliance with the requirement for two


radio communications while operating within the
Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area, or at those
airports where the U.S. Government does not operate
the control tower and radio communications cannot
be established, pilots must obtain a clearance by
visual light signal prior to taxiing on a runway and
prior to takeoff and landing.


The following phraseologies and procedures

are used in radiotelephone communications with
aeronautical ground stations.

1. Request for taxi instructions prior to


State your aircraft identification, loca-

tion, type of operation planned (VFR or IFR), and the
point of first intended landing.


Aircraft: “Washington ground, Beechcraft One Three One
Five Niner at hangar eight, ready to taxi, I

−F−R to

Tower: “Beechcraft one three one five niner, Washington
ground, runway two seven, taxi via taxiways Charlie and
Delta, hold short of runway three three left.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, hold
short of runway three three left.”

2. Receipt of ATC clearance.

ARTCC clear-

ances are relayed to pilots by airport traffic
controllers in the following manner.


Tower: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared to
the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain
eight thousand.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared
to the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain
eight thousand.”


Normally, an ATC IFR clearance is relayed to a pilot by the
ground controller. At busy locations, however, pilots may
be instructed by the ground controller to “contact
clearance delivery” on a frequency designated for this
purpose. No surveillance or control over the movement of
traffic is exercised by this position of operation.

3. Request for taxi instructions after landing.

State your aircraft identification, location, and that
you request taxi instructions.


Aircraft: “Dulles ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six
One clearing runway one right on taxiway echo three,
request clearance to Page.”

Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Dulles
ground, taxi to Page via taxiways echo three, echo one, and
echo niner.”


Aircraft: “Orlando ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six
One clearing runway one eight left at taxiway bravo three,
request clearance to Page.”

Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Orlando
ground, hold short of runway one eight right.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, hold short
of runway one eight right.”


−3−19. Taxi During Low Visibility


Pilots and aircraft operators should be constant-

ly aware that during certain low visibility conditions
the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may
not be visible to the tower controller. This may
prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence
to taxi instructions.


Of vital importance is the need for pilots to

notify the controller when difficulties are encoun-
tered or at the first indication of becoming
disoriented. Pilots should proceed with extreme
caution when taxiing toward the sun. When vision
difficulties are encountered pilots should immediate-
ly inform the controller.


Advisory Circular 120

−57, Low Visibility

Operations Surface Movement Guidance and Control
System, commonly known as LVOSMGCS (pro-
nounced “LVO SMIGS”) describes an adequate
example of a low visibility taxi plan for any airport
which has takeoff or landing operations in less than
1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility
conditions. These plans, which affect aircrew and
vehicle operators, may incorporate additional
lighting, markings, and procedures to control airport
surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels;
operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 500 feet RVR
and operations less than 500 feet RVR.


Specific lighting systems and surface markings may be
found in Paragraph 2

−1−11, Taxiway Lights, and

Paragraph 2

−3−4 , Taxiway Markings.


7110.65R CHG 2