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Airport Operations

d. When low visibility conditions exist, pilots

should focus their entire attention on the safe

operation of the aircraft while it is moving. Checklists

and nonessential communication should be withheld

until the aircraft is stopped and the brakes set.

4−3−20. Exiting the Runway After Landing

The following procedures must be followed after

landing and reaching taxi speed.

a. Exit the runway without delay at the first

available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by

ATC. Pilots must not exit the landing runway onto

another runway unless authorized by ATC. At

airports with an operating control tower, pilots should

not stop or reverse course on the runway without first

obtaining ATC approval.

b. Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise

directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the

runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the

runway edge and there are no restrictions to its

continued movement beyond the runway holding

position markings. In the absence of ATC instruc-

tions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing

runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding

position markings associated with the landing

runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude

into or cross another taxiway or ramp area. Once all

parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding

position markings, the pilot must hold unless further

instructions have been issued by ATC.


1. The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will

permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or

ramp area when required.
2. Guidance contained in subparagraphs a and b above is
considered an integral part of the landing clearance and
satisfies the requirement of 14 CFR Section 91.129.

c. Immediately change to ground control frequen-

cy when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi



1. The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any

potential conflictions with other ground traffic prior to

advising the pilot to contact ground control.
2. Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking.
That clearance does not authorize the aircraft to “enter”
or “cross” any runways. Pilots not familiar with the taxi
route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC.

4−3−21. Practice Instrument Approaches

a. Various air traffic incidents have indicated the

necessity for adoption of measures to achieve more

organized and controlled operations where practice

instrument approaches are conducted. Practice

instrument approaches are considered to be instru-

ment approaches made by either a VFR aircraft not on

an IFR flight plan or an aircraft on an IFR flight plan.

To achieve this and thereby enhance air safety, it is

Air Traffic’s policy to provide for separation of such

operations at locations where approach control

facilities are located and, as resources permit, at

certain other locations served by ARTCCs or parent

approach control facilities. Pilot requests to practice

instrument approaches may be approved by ATC

subject to traffic and workload conditions. Pilots

should anticipate that in some instances the controller

may find it necessary to deny approval or withdraw

previous approval when traffic conditions warrant. It

must be clearly understood, however, that even

though the controller may be providing separation,

pilots on VFR flight plans are required to comply with

basic VFR weather minimums (14 CFR Sec-

tion 91.155). Application of ATC procedures or any

action taken by the controller to avoid traffic

conflictions does not relieve IFR and VFR pilots of

their responsibility to see−and−avoid other traffic

while operating in VFR conditions (14 CFR

Section 91.113). In addition to the normal IFR

separation minimums (which includes visual separa-

tion) during VFR conditions, 500 feet vertical

separation may be applied between VFR aircraft and

between a VFR aircraft and the IFR aircraft. Pilots not

on IFR flight plans desiring practice instrument

approaches should always state ‘practice’ when

making requests to ATC. Controllers will instruct

VFR aircraft requesting an instrument approach to

maintain VFR. This is to preclude misunderstandings

between the pilot and controller as to the status of the

aircraft. If pilots wish to proceed in accordance with

instrument flight rules, they must specifically request

and obtain, an IFR clearance.

b. Before practicing an instrument approach,

pilots should inform the approach control facility or

the tower of the type of practice approach they desire

to make and how they intend to terminate it,

i.e., full−stop landing, touch−and−go, or missed or

low approach maneuver. This information may be

furnished progressively when conducting a series of

approaches. Pilots on an IFR flight plan, who have