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AIM

10/12/17

5

−2−6

Departure Procedures

taking the aircraft off a previously assigned nonradar
route, the pilot will be advised briefly what the vector
is to achieve. Thereafter, radar service will be
provided until the aircraft has been reestablished
“on-course” using an appropriate navigation aid and
the pilot has been advised of the aircraft’s position or
a handoff is made to another radar controller with
further surveillance capabilities.

c.

Controllers will inform pilots of the departure

control frequencies and, if appropriate, the transpon-
der code before takeoff. Pilots must ensure their
transponder is adjusted to the “on” or normal
operating position as soon as practical and remain on
during all operations unless otherwise requested to
change to “standby” by ATC. Pilots should not
change to the departure control frequency until
requested. Controllers may omit the departure control
frequency if a DP has or will be assigned and the
departure control frequency is published on the DP.

5

−2−9. Instrument Departure Procedures

(DP) 

− Obstacle Departure Procedures

(ODP), Standard Instrument Departures
(SID), and Diverse Vector Areas (DVA) 

a.

Instrument departure procedures are pre-

planned instrument flight rule (IFR) procedures
which provide obstruction clearance from the
terminal area to the appropriate en route structure.
There are two types of DPs, Obstacle Departure
Procedures (ODP), printed either textually or
graphically, and Standard Instrument Departures
(SID), always printed graphically. All DPs, either
textual or graphic may be designed using either
conventional or RNAV criteria. RNAV procedures
will have RNAV printed in the title; for exam-
ple, SHEAD TWO DEPARTURE (RNAV). ODPs
provide obstruction clearance via the least onerous
route from the terminal area to the appropriate en
route structure. ODPs are recommended for
obstruction clearance and may be flown without ATC
clearance unless an alternate departure procedure
(SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned
by ATC. Graphic ODPs will have (OBSTACLE)
printed in the procedure title; for example, GEYSR
THREE DEPARTURE (OBSTACLE), or, CROWN
ONE DEPARTURE (RNAV) (OBSTACLE). Stan-
dard Instrument Departures are air traffic control
(ATC) procedures printed for pilot/controller use in
graphic form to provide obstruction clearance and a

transition from the terminal area to the appropriate en
route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for
system enhancement and to reduce pilot/controller
workload. ATC clearance must be received prior to
flying a SID. All DPs provide the pilot with a way to
depart the airport and transition to the en route
structure safely.

b.

A Diverse Vector Area (DVA) is an area in

which ATC may provide random radar vectors during
an uninterrupted climb from the departure runway
until above the MVA/MIA, established in accordance
with the TERPS criteria for diverse departures. The
DVA provides obstacle and terrain  avoidance in lieu
of taking off from the runway under IFR using an
ODP or SID.

c.

Pilots operating under 14 CFR Part 91 are

strongly encouraged to file and fly a DP at night,
during marginal Visual Meteorological Conditions
(VMC) and Instrument Meteorological Conditions
(IMC), when one is available. The following
paragraphs will provide an overview of the DP
program, why DPs are developed, what criteria are
used, where to find them, how they are to be flown,
and finally pilot and ATC responsibilities.

d.

Why are DPs necessary? The primary reason is

to provide obstacle clearance protection information
to pilots. A secondary reason, at busier airports, is to
increase efficiency and reduce communications and
departure delays through the use of SIDs. When an
instrument approach is initially developed for an
airport, the need for DPs is assessed. The procedure
designer conducts an obstacle analysis to support
departure operations. If an aircraft may turn in any
direction from a runway within the limits of the
assessment area (see paragraph 5

−2−9e3) and remain

clear of obstacles, that runway passes what is called
a diverse departure assessment and no ODP will be
published. A SID may be published if needed for air
traffic control purposes. However, if an obstacle
penetrates what is called the 40:1 obstacle
identification surface, then the procedure designer
chooses whether to:

1.

Establish a steeper than normal climb

gradient; or

2.

Establish a steeper than normal climb

gradient with an alternative that increases takeoff
minima to allow the pilot to visually remain clear of
the obstacle(s); or

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

9/13/18