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AIM

10/12/17

5

−2−8

Departure Procedures

FIG 5

−2−1

Diverse Departure Obstacle Assessment to 25/46 NM

EXAMPLE

TAKEOFF OBSTACLE NOTES: Rwy 14, trees 2011’
from DER, 29’ left of centerline, 100’ AGL/3829’
MSL. Rwy 32, trees 1009’ from DER, 697’ left of
centerline, 100’ AGL/3839’ MSL. Tower 4448’ from
DER, 1036’ left of centerline, 165’ AGL/3886’ MSL.

5.

Climb gradients greater than 200 FPNM are

specified when required to support procedure design
constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or airspace
restrictions. Compliance with a climb gradient for
these purposes is mandatory when the procedure is
part of the ATC clearance, unless increased takeoff
minimums are provided and weather conditions
allow compliance with these minimums.

NOTE

Climb gradients for ATC purposes are being phased out on
SIDs.

EXAMPLE

“Cross ALPHA intersection at or below 4000; maintain
6000.” The pilot climbs at least 200 FPNM to 6000. If 4000
is reached before ALPHA, the pilot levels off at 4000 until
passing ALPHA; then immediately resumes at least 200
FPNM climb.

EXAMPLE

“TAKEOFF MINIMUMS:  RWY 27, Standard with a
minimum climb of 280’ per NM to 2500.” A climb of at least
280 FPNM is required to 2500 and is mandatory when the
departure procedure is included in the ATC clearance.

NOTE

Some SIDs still retain labeled “ATC” climb gradients
published or have climb gradients that are established to

meet a published  altitude restriction that is not required for
obstacle clearance or  procedure design criteria. These
procedures will be revised in the course of the normal
procedure amendment process.

6.

Climb gradients may be specified only to an

altitude/fix, above which the normal gradient applies.

An ATC

−required altitude restriction published at a

fix, will not have an associated climb gradient pub-
lished with that restriction. Pilots are expected to
determine if crossing altitudes can be met, based on
the performance capability of the aircraft they are op-
erating.

EXAMPLE

“Minimum climb 340 FPNM to ALPHA.” The pilot climbs
at least 340 FPNM to ALPHA, then at least 200 FPNM to
MIA.

7.

A Visual Climb Over Airport (VCOA)

procedure is a departure option for an IFR aircraft,
operating in visual meteorological conditions equal
to or greater than the specified visibility and ceiling,
to visually conduct climbing turns over the airport to
the published “climb

−to” altitude from which to

proceed with the instrument portion of the departure.
VCOA procedures are developed to avoid obstacles
greater than 3 statute miles from the departure end of
the runway as an alternative to complying with climb
gradients greater than 200 feet per nautical mile.
Pilots are responsible to advise ATC as early as
possible of the intent to fly the VCOA option prior to
departure. These textual procedures are published in
the Take-Off Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

9/13/18