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AIM

10/12/17

5

−3−13

En Route Procedures

NOTE

The exchange of information between an aircraft and an
ARTCC through an FSS is quicker than relay via company
radio because the FSS has direct interphone lines to the
responsible ARTCC sector. Accordingly, when circum-
stances dictate a choice between the two, during an
ARTCC frequency outage, relay via FSS radio is
recommended.

d. Oakland Oceanic FIR.

 The use of CPDLC and

ADS

−C in the Oakland Oceanic FIR (KZAK) is only

permitted by Inmarsat, Iridium, and MTSAT
customers. All other forms of data link connectivity
are not authorized. Users must ensure that the proper
data link code is filed in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL
in order to indicate which satellite medium(s) the
aircraft is equipped with. The identifier for Inmarsat
is J5, the identifier for MTSAT is J6, and the identifier
for Iridium is J7. If J5, J6, or J7 is not included in the
ICAO FPL, then the LOGON will be rejected by
KZAK and the aircraft will not be able to connect.

e. New York Oceanic FIR.

 The use of CPDLC

and ADS

−C in the New York Oceanic FIR (KZWY)

is only permitted by Inmarsat and Iridium customers.
All other forms of data link connectivity are not
authorized. Users must ensure that the proper data
link code is filed in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL in order
to indicate which satellite medium(s) the aircraft is
equipped with. The identifier for Inmarsat is J5 and
the identifier for Iridium is J7. If J5 or J7 is not
included in the ICAO FPL, then the LOGON will be
rejected by KZWY and the aircraft will not be able to
connect.

5

−3−2. Position Reporting

The safety and effectiveness of traffic control
depends to a large extent on accurate position
reporting. In order to provide the proper separation
and expedite aircraft movements, ATC must be able
to make accurate estimates of the progress of every
aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan.

a. Position Identification.

1.

When a position report is to be made passing

a VOR radio facility, the time reported should be the
time at which the first complete reversal of the
“to/from” indicator is accomplished.

2.

When a position report is made passing a

facility by means of an airborne ADF, the time

reported should be the time at which the indicator
makes a complete reversal.

3.

When an aural or a light panel indication is

used to determine the time passing a reporting point,
such as a fan marker, Z marker, cone of silence or
intersection of range courses, the time should be
noted when the signal is first received and again when
it ceases. The mean of these two times should then be
taken as the actual time over the fix.

4.

If a position is given with respect to distance

and direction from a reporting point, the distance and
direction should be computed as accurately as
possible.

5.

Except for terminal area transition purposes,

position reports or navigation with reference to aids
not established for use in the structure in which flight
is being conducted will not normally be required by
ATC.

b. Position Reporting Points.

CFRs require

pilots to maintain a listening watch on the appropriate
frequency and, unless operating under the provisions
of subparagraph c, to furnish position reports passing
certain reporting points. Reporting points are
indicated by symbols on en route charts. The
designated compulsory reporting point symbol is a
solid triangle  

  and the “on request” reporting

point symbol is the open triangle  

. Reports

passing an “on request” reporting point are only
necessary when requested by ATC.

c. Position Reporting Requirements.

1. Flights Along Airways or Routes.

A

position report is required by all flights regardless of
altitude, including those operating in accordance with
an ATC clearance specifying “VFR

−on−top,” over

each designated compulsory reporting point along the
route being flown.

2. Flights Along a Direct Route.

Regardless

of the altitude or flight level being flown, including
flights operating in accordance with an ATC
clearance specifying “VFR

−on−top,” pilots must

report over each reporting point used in the flight plan
to define the route of flight.

3. Flights in a Radar Environment.

When

informed by ATC that their aircraft are in “Radar
Contact,” pilots should discontinue position reports
over designated reporting points. They should
resume normal position reporting when ATC advises

9/13/18

AIM