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En Route Procedures

c. Radar Vectors. Controllers may vector air-

craft within controlled airspace for separation

purposes, noise abatement considerations, when an

operational advantage will be realized by the pilot or

the controller, or when requested by the pilot. Vectors

outside of controlled airspace will be provided only

on pilot request. Pilots will be advised as to what the

vector is to achieve when the vector is controller

initiated and will take the aircraft off a previously

assigned nonradar route. To the extent possible,

aircraft operating on RNAV routes will be allowed to

remain on their own navigation.

d. When flying in Canadian airspace, pilots are

cautioned to review Canadian Air Regulations.

1. Special attention should be given to the parts

which differ from U.S. CFRs.

(a) The Canadian Airways Class B airspace

restriction is an example. Class B airspace is all

controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet MSL

or the MEA, whichever is higher, within which only

IFR and controlled VFR flights are permitted. (Low

level airspace means an airspace designated and

defined as such in the Designated Airspace


(b) Unless issued a VFR flight clearance by

ATC,  regardless of the weather conditions or the

height of the terrain, no person may operate an

aircraft under VMC within Class B airspace.

(c) The requirement for entry into Class B

airspace is a student pilot permit (under the guidance

or control of a flight instructor).

(d) VFR flight requires visual contact with

the ground or water at all times.

2. Segments of VOR airways and high level

routes in Canada are based on L/MF navigation aids

and are charted in brown color instead of blue on

en route charts.

FIG 5−3−1

Adhering to Airways or Routes

5−3−5. Airway or Route Course Changes

a. Pilots of aircraft are required to adhere to

airways or routes being flown. Special attention must

be given to this requirement during course changes.

Each course change consists of variables that make

the technique applicable in each case a matter only the