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AIM

10/12/17

5

−4−5

Arrival Procedures

responsible for determining if weather/visibility is
adequate for approach/landing.

d.

When making an IFR approach to an airport not

served by a tower or FSS, after ATC advises
“CHANGE TO ADVISORY FREQUENCY AP-
PROVED” you should broadcast your intentions,
including the type of approach being executed, your
position, and when over the final approach fix
inbound (nonprecision approach) or when over the
outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker
inbound (precision approach). Continue to monitor
the appropriate frequency (UNICOM, etc.) for
reports from other pilots.

5

−4−5. Instrument Approach Procedure

(IAP) Charts

a.

14 CFR Section 91.175(a), Instrument ap-

proaches to civil airports, requires the use of SIAPs
prescribed for the airport in 14 CFR Part 97 unless
otherwise authorized by the Administrator (including
ATC). If there are military procedures published at a
civil airport, aircraft operating under 14 CFR Part 91
must use the civil procedure(s). Civil procedures are
defined with “FAA” in parenthesis; e.g., (FAA), at the
top, center of the procedure chart. DOD procedures
are defined using the abbreviation of the applicable
military service in parenthesis; e.g., (USAF), (USN),
(USA). 14 CFR Section 91.175(g), Military airports,
requires civil pilots flying into or out of military
airports to comply with the IAPs and takeoff and
landing minimums prescribed by the authority
having jurisdiction at those airports. Unless an
emergency exists, civil aircraft operating at military
airports normally require advance authorization,
commonly referred to as “Prior Permission
Required” or “PPR.” Information on obtaining a PPR
for a particular military airport can be found in the
Chart Supplement U.S.

NOTE

Civil aircraft may conduct practice VFR approaches using
DOD instrument approach procedures when approved by
the air traffic controller.

1.

IAPs (standard and special, civil and military)

are based on joint civil and military criteria contained
in the U.S. Standard for TERPS. The design of IAPs
based on criteria contained in TERPS, takes into
account the interrelationship between airports,
facilities, and the surrounding environment, terrain,

obstacles, noise sensitivity, etc. Appropriate
altitudes, courses, headings, distances, and other
limitations are specified and, once approved, the
procedures are published and distributed by
government and commercial cartographers as
instrument approach charts.

2.

Not all IAPs are published in chart form.

Radar IAPs are established where requirements and
facilities exist but they are printed in tabular form in
appropriate U.S. Government Flight Information
Publications.

3.

The navigation equipment required to join

and fly an instrument approach procedure is indicated
by the title of the procedure and notes on the chart.

(a)

Straight

−in IAPs are identified by the

navigational system providing the final approach
guidance and the runway to which the approach is
aligned (e.g., VOR RWY 13). Circling only
approaches are identified by the navigational system
providing final approach guidance and a letter
(e.g., VOR A). More than one navigational system
separated by a slash indicates that more than one type
of equipment must be used to execute the final
approach (e.g., VOR/DME RWY 31). More than one
navigational system separated by the word “or”
indicates either type of equipment may be used to
execute the final approach (e.g., VOR or GPS
RWY 15).

(b)

In some cases, other types of navigation

systems including radar may be required to execute
other portions of the approach or to navigate to the
IAF (e.g., an NDB procedure turn to an ILS, an NDB
in the missed approach, or radar required to join the
procedure or identify a fix). When radar or other
equipment is required for procedure entry from the
en route environment, a note will be charted in the
planview of the approach procedure chart
(e.g., RADAR REQUIRED or ADF REQUIRED).
When radar or other equipment is required on
portions of the procedure outside the final approach
segment, including the missed approach, a note will
be charted in the notes box of the pilot briefing
portion of the approach chart (e.g., RADAR
REQUIRED or DME REQUIRED). Notes are not
charted when VOR is required outside the final
approach segment. Pilots should ensure that the

2/28/19

AIM