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AIM

10/12/17

5

−4−21

Arrival Procedures

4.

A straight

−in aligned procedure may be

restricted to circling only minimums when an
excessive descent gradient necessitates. The descent
angle between the FAF/stepdown fix and the Circling
MDA must not exceed the maximum descent angle
allowed by TERPS criteria. A published VDA on
these procedures does not imply that landing straight
ahead is recommended or even possible. The descent
rate based on the VDA may exceed the capabilities of
the aircraft and the pilot must determine how to best
maneuver the aircraft within the circling area in order
to land safely.

l.

In isolated cases, an IAP may contain a

published visual flight path. These procedures are
annotated “Fly Visual to Airport” or “Fly Visual.” A
dashed arrow indicating the visual flight path will be
included in the profile and plan views with an
approximate heading and distance to the end of the
runway.

1.

The depicted ground track associated with the

“Fly Visual to Airport” segment should be flown as
a “Dead Reckoning” course. When executing the
“Fly Visual to Airport” segment, the flight visibility
must not be less than that prescribed in the IAP; the
pilot must remain clear of clouds and proceed to the
airport maintaining visual contact with the ground.
Altitude on the visual flight path is at the discretion
of the pilot, and it is the responsibility of the pilot to
visually acquire and avoid obstacles in the “Fly
Visual to Airport” segment.

2.

Missed approach obstacle clearance is

assured only if the missed approach is commenced at
the published MAP. Before initiating an IAP that
contains a “Fly Visual to Airport” segment, the pilot
should have preplanned climb out options based on
aircraft performance and terrain features. Obstacle
clearance is the responsibility of the pilot when the
approach is continued beyond the MAP.

NOTE

The FAA Administrator retains the authority to approve
instrument approach procedures where the pilot may not
necessarily have one of the visual references specified in
14 CFR 

§

 91.175 and related rules. It is not a function of

procedure design to ensure compliance with 

§

91.175. The

annotation “Fly Visual to Airport” provides relief from

§

91.175 requirements that the pilot have distinctly visible

and identifiable visual references prior to descent below
MDA/DA.

m. Area Navigation (RNAV) Instrument

Approach Charts. 

Reliance on RNAV systems for

instrument operations is becoming more common-
place as new systems such as GPS and augmented
GPS such as the Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) are developed and deployed. In order to
support full integration of RNAV procedures into the
National Airspace System (NAS), the FAA
developed a new charting format for IAPs (See
FIG 5

−4−6). This format avoids unnecessary

duplication and proliferation of instrument approach
charts. The original stand alone GPS charts, titled
simply “GPS,” are being converted to the newer
format as the procedures are revised. One reason for
the revision is the addition of WAAS based minima
to the approach chart. The reformatted approach chart
is titled “RNAV (GPS) RWY XX.” Up to four lines
of minima are included on these charts. Ground
Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Landing
System (GLS) was a placeholder for future WAAS
and LAAS minima, and the minima was always listed
as N/A. The GLS minima line has now been replaced
by the WAAS LPV (Localizer Performance with
Vertical Guidance) minima on most RNAV (GPS)
charts. LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical
navigation) was added to support both WAAS
electronic vertical guidance and Barometric VNAV.
LPV and LNAV/VNAV are both APV procedures as
described in paragraph 5

−4−5a7. The original GPS

minima, titled “S

−XX,” for straight in runway XX, is

retitled LNAV (lateral navigation). Circling minima
may also be published. A new type of nonprecision
WAAS minima will also be published on this chart
and titled LP (localizer performance). LP will be
published in locations where vertically guided
minima cannot be provided due to terrain and
obstacles and therefore, no LPV or LNAV/VNAV
minima will be published. GBAS procedures are
published on a separate chart and the GLS minima
line is to be used only for GBAS. ATC clearance for
the RNAV procedure authorizes a properly certified
pilot to utilize any minimums for which the aircraft is
certified (for example, a WAAS equipped aircraft
utilizes the LPV or LP minima but a GPS only aircraft
may not). The RNAV chart includes information
formatted for quick reference by the pilot or flight
crew at the top of the chart. This portion of the chart,
developed based on a study by the Department of
Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Sys-
tem Center, is commonly referred to as the pilot
briefing.

2/28/19

AIM