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AIM

10/12/17

5−4−21

Arrival Procedures

4. A straight−in aligned procedure may be

restricted to circling only minimums when an

excessive descent gradient necessitates. The descent

angle between the FAF/stepdown fix and the Circling

MDA must not exceed the maximum descent angle

allowed by TERPS criteria. A published VDA on

these procedures does not imply that landing straight

ahead is recommended or even possible. The descent

rate based on the VDA may exceed the capabilities of

the aircraft and the pilot must determine how to best

maneuver the aircraft within the circling area in order

to land safely.

l. In isolated cases, an IAP may contain a

published visual flight path. These procedures are

annotated “Fly Visual to Airport” or “Fly Visual.” A

dashed arrow indicating the visual flight path will be

included in the profile and plan views with an

approximate heading and distance to the end of the

runway.

1. The depicted ground track associated with the

“Fly Visual to Airport” segment should be flown as

a “Dead Reckoning” course. When executing the

“Fly Visual to Airport” segment, the flight visibility

must not be less than that prescribed in the IAP; the

pilot must remain clear of clouds and proceed to the

airport maintaining visual contact with the ground.

Altitude on the visual flight path is at the discretion

of the pilot, and it is the responsibility of the pilot to

visually acquire and avoid obstacles in the “Fly

Visual to Airport” segment.

2. Missed approach obstacle clearance is

assured only if the missed approach is commenced at

the published MAP. Before initiating an IAP that

contains a “Fly Visual to Airport” segment, the pilot

should have preplanned climb out options based on

aircraft performance and terrain features. Obstacle

clearance is the responsibility of the pilot when the

approach is continued beyond the MAP.

NOTE−

The FAA Administrator retains the authority to approve

instrument approach procedures where the pilot may not

necessarily have one of the visual references specified in
14 CFR 

§

 91.175 and related rules. It is not a function of

procedure design to ensure compliance with 

§

91.175. The

annotation “Fly Visual to Airport” provides relief from

§

91.175 requirements that the pilot have distinctly visible

and identifiable visual references prior to descent below

MDA/DA.

m. Area Navigation (RNAV) Instrument

Approach Charts.  Reliance on RNAV systems for

instrument operations is becoming more common-

place as new systems such as GPS and augmented

GPS such as the Wide Area Augmentation System

(WAAS) are developed and deployed. In order to

support full integration of RNAV procedures into the

National Airspace System (NAS), the FAA

developed a new charting format for IAPs (See

FIG 5−4−6). This format avoids unnecessary

duplication and proliferation of instrument approach

charts. The original stand alone GPS charts, titled

simply “GPS,” are being converted to the newer

format as the procedures are revised. One reason for

the revision is the addition of WAAS based minima

to the approach chart. The reformatted approach chart

is titled “RNAV (GPS) RWY XX.” Up to four lines

of minima are included on these charts. Ground

Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Landing

System (GLS) was a placeholder for future WAAS

and LAAS minima, and the minima was always listed

as N/A. The GLS minima line has now been replaced

by the WAAS LPV (Localizer Performance with

Vertical Guidance) minima on most RNAV (GPS)

charts. LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical

navigation) was added to support both WAAS

electronic vertical guidance and Barometric VNAV.

LPV and LNAV/VNAV are both APV procedures as

described in paragraph 5−4−5a7. The original GPS

minima, titled “S−XX,” for straight in runway XX, is

retitled LNAV (lateral navigation). Circling minima

may also be published. A new type of nonprecision

WAAS minima will also be published on this chart

and titled LP (localizer performance). LP will be

published in locations where vertically guided

minima cannot be provided due to terrain and

obstacles and therefore, no LPV or LNAV/VNAV

minima will be published. GBAS procedures are

published on a separate chart and the GLS minima

line is to be used only for GBAS. ATC clearance for

the RNAV procedure authorizes a properly certified

pilot to utilize any minimums for which the aircraft is

certified (for example, a WAAS equipped aircraft

utilizes the LPV or LP minima but a GPS only aircraft

may not). The RNAV chart includes information

formatted for quick reference by the pilot or flight

crew at the top of the chart. This portion of the chart,

developed based on a study by the Department of

Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Sys-

tem Center, is commonly referred to as the pilot

briefing.

2/28/19

AIM