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Arrival Procedures

due either to workload or not having the fix on the
video map.


If a missed approach is required, advise ATC

and include the reason (unless initiated by ATC).
Comply with the missed approach instructions for the
instrument approach procedure being executed,
unless otherwise directed by ATC.


AIM, Paragraph 5

−4−21 , Missed Approach

AIM, Paragraph 5

−5−5 , Missed Approach,


−4−8. Special Instrument Approach


Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) charts reflect
the criteria associated with the U.S. Standard for
Terminal Instrument [Approach] Procedures
(TERPs), which prescribes standardized methods for
use in developing IAPs. Standard IAPs are published
in the Federal Register (FR) in accordance with
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 97,
and are available for use by appropriately qualified
pilots operating properly equipped and airworthy
aircraft in accordance with operating rules and
procedures acceptable to the FAA. Special IAPs are
also developed using TERPS but are not given public
notice in the FR. The FAA authorizes only certain
individual pilots and/or pilots in individual
organizations to use special IAPs, and may require
additional crew training and/or aircraft equipment or
performance, and may also require the use of landing
aids, communications, or weather services not
available for public use. Additionally, IAPs that
service private use airports or heliports are generally
special IAPs. FDC NOTAMs for Specials, FDC
T-NOTAMs, may also be used to promulgate
safety-of-flight information relating to Specials
provided the location has a valid landing area
identifier and is serviced by the United States
NOTAM system. Pilots may access NOTAMs online
or through an FAA Flight Service Station (FSS). FSS
specialists will not automatically provide NOTAM
information to pilots for special IAPs during
telephone pre

−flight briefings. Pilots who are

authorized by the FAA to use special IAPs must
specifically request FDC NOTAM information for
the particular special IAP they plan to use.


−4−9. Procedure Turn and Hold−in−lieu of

Procedure Turn


A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed

when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish
the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final
approach course. The procedure turn or hold



−of−PT is a required maneuver when it is depicted

on the approach chart, unless cleared by ATC for a

−in approach. Additionally, the procedure

turn or hold

−in−lieu−of−PT is not permitted when the

symbol “No PT” is depicted on the initial segment
being used, when a RADAR VECTOR to the final
approach course is provided, or when conducting a
timed approach from a holding fix. The altitude
prescribed for the procedure turn is a minimum
altitude until the aircraft is established on the inbound
course. The maneuver must be completed within the
distance specified in the profile view. For a

−in−lieu−of−PT, the holding pattern direction

must be flown as depicted and the specified leg
length/timing must not be exceeded.


The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or

−in−lieu−of−PT when it is not required by the

procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance
from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC
clearance intends for a procedure turn to be conducted or
to allow for a straight

−in approach, the pilot must

immediately request clarification from ATC (14 CFR
Section 91.123).


On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow

indicates the maneuvering side of the outbound
course on which the procedure turn is made.
Headings are provided for course reversal using the
45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at
which the turn may be commenced and the type and
rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot (limited
by the charted remain within xx NM distance). Some
of the options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the
racetrack pattern, the teardrop procedure turn, or the
80 degree  260 degree course reversal. Racetrack
entries should be conducted on the maneuvering side
where the majority of protected airspace resides. If an
entry places the pilot on the non

−maneuvering side of

the PT, correction to intercept the outbound course
ensures remaining within protected airspace. Some
procedure turns are specified by procedural track.
These turns must be flown exactly as depicted.


Descent to the procedure turn (PT) comple-

tion altitude from the PT fix altitude (when one has