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Arrival Procedures

due either to workload or not having the fix on the

video map.

h. If a missed approach is required, advise ATC

and include the reason (unless initiated by ATC).

Comply with the missed approach instructions for the

instrument approach procedure being executed,

unless otherwise directed by ATC.


AIM, Paragraph 5−4−21 , Missed Approach

AIM, Paragraph 5−5−5 , Missed Approach,

5−4−8. Special Instrument Approach


Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) charts reflect

the criteria associated with the U.S. Standard for

Terminal Instrument [Approach] Procedures

(TERPs), which prescribes standardized methods for

use in developing IAPs. Standard IAPs are published

in the Federal Register (FR) in accordance with

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 97,

and are available for use by appropriately qualified

pilots operating properly equipped and airworthy

aircraft in accordance with operating rules and

procedures acceptable to the FAA. Special IAPs are

also developed using TERPS but are not given public

notice in the FR. The FAA authorizes only certain

individual pilots and/or pilots in individual

organizations to use special IAPs, and may require

additional crew training and/or aircraft equipment or

performance, and may also require the use of landing

aids, communications, or weather services not

available for public use. Additionally, IAPs that

service private use airports or heliports are generally

special IAPs. FDC NOTAMs for Specials, FDC

T-NOTAMs, may also be used to promulgate

safety-of-flight information relating to Specials

provided the location has a valid landing area

identifier and is serviced by the United States

NOTAM system. Pilots may access NOTAMs online

or through an FAA Flight Service Station (FSS). FSS

specialists will not automatically provide NOTAM

information to pilots for special IAPs during

telephone pre−flight briefings. Pilots who are

authorized by the FAA to use special IAPs must

specifically request FDC NOTAM information for

the particular special IAP they plan to use.

5−4−9. Procedure Turn and Hold−in−lieu of

Procedure Turn

a. A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed

when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish

the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final

approach course. The procedure turn or hold−in−

lieu−of−PT is a required maneuver when it is depicted

on the approach chart, unless cleared by ATC for a

straight−in approach. Additionally, the procedure

turn or hold−in−lieu−of−PT is not permitted when the

symbol “No PT” is depicted on the initial segment

being used, when a RADAR VECTOR to the final

approach course is provided, or when conducting a

timed approach from a holding fix. The altitude

prescribed for the procedure turn is a minimum

altitude until the aircraft is established on the inbound

course. The maneuver must be completed within the

distance specified in the profile view. For a

hold−in−lieu−of−PT, the holding pattern direction

must be flown as depicted and the specified leg

length/timing must not be exceeded.


The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or

hold−in−lieu−of−PT when it is not required by the

procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance

from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC

clearance intends for a procedure turn to be conducted or

to allow for a straight−in approach, the pilot must

immediately request clarification from ATC (14 CFR

Section 91.123).

1. On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow

indicates the maneuvering side of the outbound

course on which the procedure turn is made.

Headings are provided for course reversal using the

45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at

which the turn may be commenced and the type and

rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot (limited

by the charted remain within xx NM distance). Some

of the options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the

racetrack pattern, the teardrop procedure turn, or the

80 degree 

 260 degree course reversal. Racetrack

entries should be conducted on the maneuvering side

where the majority of protected airspace resides. If an

entry places the pilot on the non−maneuvering side of

the PT, correction to intercept the outbound course

ensures remaining within protected airspace. Some

procedure turns are specified by procedural track.

These turns must be flown exactly as depicted.

2. Descent to the procedure turn (PT) comple-

tion altitude from the PT fix altitude (when one has