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AIM

10/12/17

5−4−32

Arrival Procedures

3. When the approach procedure involves a

procedure turn, a maximum speed of not greater than

200 knots (IAS) should be observed from first

overheading the course reversal IAF through the

procedure turn maneuver to ensure containment

within the obstruction clearance area. Pilots should

begin the outbound turn immediately after passing

the procedure turn fix. The procedure turn maneuver

must be executed within the distance specified in the

profile view. The normal procedure turn distance is

10 miles. This may be reduced to a minimum of

5 miles where only Category A or helicopter aircraft

are to be operated or increased to as much as 15 miles

to accommodate high performance aircraft.

4. A teardrop procedure or penetration turn may

be specified in some procedures for a required course

reversal. The teardrop procedure consists of

departure from an initial approach fix on an outbound

course followed by a turn toward and intercepting the

inbound course at or prior to the intermediate fix or

point. Its purpose is to permit an aircraft to reverse

direction and lose considerable altitude within

reasonably limited airspace. Where no fix is available

to mark the beginning of the intermediate segment, it

must be assumed to commence at a point 10 miles

prior to the final approach fix. When the facility is

located on the airport, an aircraft is considered to be

on final approach upon completion of the penetration

turn. However, the final approach segment begins on

the final approach course 10 miles from the facility.

5. A holding pattern in lieu of procedure turn

may be specified for course reversal in some

procedures. In such cases, the holding pattern is

established over an intermediate fix or a final

approach fix. The holding pattern distance or time

specified in the profile view must be observed. For a

hold−in−lieu−of−PT, the holding pattern direction

must be flown as depicted and the specified leg

length/timing must not be exceeded. Maximum

holding airspeed limitations as set forth for all

holding patterns apply. The holding pattern maneuver

is completed when the aircraft is established on the

inbound course after executing the appropriate entry.

If cleared for the approach prior to returning to the

holding fix, and the aircraft is at the prescribed

altitude, additional circuits of the holding pattern are

not necessary nor expected by ATC. If pilots elect to

make additional circuits to lose excessive altitude or

to become better established on course, it is their

responsibility to so advise ATC upon receipt of their

approach clearance.

NOTE−

Some approach charts have an arrival holding pattern

depicted at the IAF using a “thin line” holding symbol. It

is charted where holding is frequently required prior to

starting the approach procedure so that detailed holding

instructions are not required. The arrival holding pattern

is not authorized unless assigned by Air Traffic Control.

Holding at the same fix may also be depicted on the en route

chart. A hold−in−lieu of procedure turn is depicted by a

“thick line” symbol, and is part of the instrument approach

procedure as described in paragraph 5−4−9. (See U. S.

Terminal Procedures booklets page E1 for both examples.)

6. A procedure turn is not required when an

approach can be made directly from a specified

intermediate fix to the final approach fix. In such

cases, the term “NoPT” is used with the appropriate

course and altitude to denote that the procedure turn

is not required. If a procedure turn is desired, and

when cleared to do so by ATC, descent below the

procedure turn altitude should not be made until the

aircraft is established on the inbound course, since

some NoPT altitudes may be lower than the

procedure turn altitudes.

b. Limitations on Procedure Turns

1. In the case of a radar initial approach to a final

approach fix or position, or a timed approach from a

holding fix, or where the procedure specifies NoPT,

no pilot may make a procedure turn unless, when final

approach clearance is received, the pilot so advises

ATC and a clearance is received to execute a

procedure turn.

2. When a teardrop procedure turn is depicted

and a course reversal is required, this type turn must

be executed.

3. When a holding pattern replaces a procedure

turn, the holding pattern must be followed, except

when RADAR VECTORING is provided or when

NoPT is shown on the approach course. The

recommended entry procedures will ensure the

aircraft remains within the holding pattern’s

protected airspace. As in the procedure turn, the

descent from the minimum holding pattern altitude to

the final approach fix altitude (when lower) may not

commence until the aircraft is established on the

inbound course. Where a holding pattern is

established in−lieu−of a procedure turn, the maxi-

mum holding pattern airspeeds apply.

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

2/28/19