background image




Arrival Procedures

a. Simultaneous dependent approaches  are an

ATC procedure permitting approaches to airports

having parallel runway centerlines separated by at

least 2,500 feet up to 9,000 feet. Integral parts of a

total system are ILS or other system providing

approach navigation, radar, communications, ATC

procedures, and required airborne equipment. RNAV

equipment in the aircraft or GLS equipment on the

ground and in the aircraft may replace the required

airborne and ground based ILS equipment. Although

non−precision  minimums may be published, pilots

must only use those procedures specifically autho-

rized by chart note. For example, the chart note

“LNAV NA during simultaneous operations,”

requires vertical guidance. When given a choice,

pilots should always fly a precision approach

whenever possible.

b. A simultaneous dependent approach differs

from a simultaneous independent approach in that,

the minimum distance between parallel runway

centerlines may be reduced; there is no requirement

for radar monitoring or advisories; and a staggered

separation of aircraft on the adjacent final course is


c. A minimum of 1.0 NM radar separation

(diagonal) is required between successive aircraft on

the adjacent final approach course when runway

centerlines are at least 2,500 feet but no more than

3,600 feet apart. A minimum of 1.5 NM radar

separation (diagonal) is required between successive

aircraft on the adjacent final approach course when

runway centerlines are more than 3,600 feet but no

more than 8,300 feet apart. When runway centerlines

are more than 8,300 feet but no more than 9,000 feet

apart a minimum of 2 NM diagonal radar separation

is provided. Aircraft on the same final approach

course within 10 NM of the runway end are provided

a minimum of 3 NM radar separation, reduced to

2.5 NM in certain circumstances. In addition, a

minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of three

miles radar separation is provided between aircraft

during turn on to the parallel final approach course.

d. Whenever parallel approaches are in use, pilots

are informed by ATC or via the ATIS that approaches

to both runways are in use. The charted IAP also notes

which runways may be used simultaneously.  In

addition, the radar controller will have the interphone

capability of communicating with the tower

controller where separation responsibility has not

been delegated to the tower.


ATC will not specifically identify these operations as being

dependent when advertised on the ATIS. 

Simultaneous ILS Runway 19 right and ILS Runway 19 left

in use.

e. At certain airports, simultaneous dependent

approaches are permitted to runways spaced less than

2,500 feet apart. In this case, ATC will provide no less

than the minimum authorized diagonal separation

with the leader always arriving on the same runway.

The trailing aircraft is permitted reduced diagonal

separation, instead of the single runway separation

normally utilized for runways spaced less than 2,500

feet apart. For wake turbulence mitigation reasons:

1. Reduced diagonal spacing is only permitted

when certain aircraft wake category pairings exist;

typically when the leader is either in the large or small

wake turbulence category, and

2. All aircraft must descend on the glideslope

from the altitude at which they were cleared for the

approach during these operations.
When reduced separation is authorized, the IAP

briefing strip indicates that simultaneous operations

require the use of vertical guidance and that the pilot

should maintain last assigned altitude until intercept-

ing the glideslope. No special pilot training is

required to participate in these operations.


Either simultaneous dependent approaches with reduced

separation or SOIA PRM approaches may be conducted to

Runways 28R and 28L at KSFO spaced 750 feet apart,

depending on weather conditions and traffic volume. Pilots

should use caution so as not to confuse these operations.

Plan for SOIA procedures only when ATC assigns a PRM

approach or the ATIS advertises PRM approaches are in

use. KSFO is the only airport where both procedures are

presently conducted.


AIM, Paragraph 5−4−16, Simultaneous Close Parallel PRM Approaches

and Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA)


7110.65R CHG 2