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Arrival Procedures

breakout is imminent because the blundering aircraft
will be on another frequency. It is important that,
when a pilot receives breakout instructions, the
assumption is made that a blundering aircraft is about
to (or has penetrated the NTZ) and is heading toward
his/her approach course. The pilot must initiate a
breakout as soon as safety allows. While conducting
PRM approaches, pilots must maintain an increased
sense of awareness in order to immediately react to an
ATC (breakout) instruction and maneuver (as
instructed by ATC) away from a blundering aircraft.

(b) Communications.

 Dual VHF communi-

cations procedures should be carefully followed. One
of the assumptions made that permits the safe conduct
of PRM approaches is that there will be no blocked

(c) Hand

−flown Breakouts. The use of the

autopilot is encouraged while flying a PRM
approach, but the autopilot must be disengaged in the
rare event that a breakout is issued. Simulation
studies of breakouts have shown that a hand


breakout can be initiated consistently faster than a
breakout performed using the autopilot.

(d) TCAS.

 The ATC breakout instruction is

the primary means of conflict resolution. TCAS, if
installed, provides another form of conflict resolution
in the unlikely event other separation standards
would fail. TCAS is not required to conduct a closely
spaced approach.

The TCAS provides only vertical resolution of air-
craft conflicts, while the ATC breakout instruction
provides both vertical and horizontal guidance for
conflict resolutions. Pilots should always immediate-
ly follow the TCAS Resolution Advisory (RA),
whenever it is received. Should a TCAS RA be re-
ceived before, during, or after an ATC breakout
instruction is issued, the pilot should follow the RA,
even if it conflicts with the climb/descent portion of
the breakout maneuver. If following an RA requires
deviating from an ATC clearance, the pilot must ad-
vise ATC as soon as practical. While following an
RA, it is extremely important that the pilot also com-
ply with the turn portion of the ATC breakout
instruction unless the pilot determines safety to be
factor. Adhering to these procedures assures the pilot
that acceptable “breakout” separation margins will
always be provided, even in the face of a normal pro-
cedural or system failure.


−4−17. Simultaneous Converging

Instrument Approaches


ATC may conduct instrument approaches

simultaneously to converging runways; i.e., runways
having an included angle from 15 to 100 degrees, at
airports where a program has been specifically
approved to do so.


The basic concept requires that dedicated,

separate standard instrument approach procedures be
developed for each converging runway included.
These approaches can be identified by the letter “V”
in the title; for example, “ILS V Rwy 17

  Missed Approach Points must

be at least 3 miles apart and missed approach
procedures ensure that missed approach protected
airspace does not overlap.


Other requirements are: radar availability,

nonintersecting final approach courses, precision
approach capability for each runway and, if runways
intersect, controllers must be able to apply visual
separation as well as intersecting runway separation
criteria. Intersecting runways also require minimums
of at least 700 foot ceilings and 2 miles visibility.
Straight in approaches and landings must be made.


Whenever simultaneous converging approach-

es are in use, aircraft will be informed by the
controller as soon as feasible after initial contact or
via ATIS. Additionally, the radar controller will have
direct communications capability with the tower
controller where separation responsibility has not
been delegated to the tower.


−4−18. RNP AR Instrument Approach


These procedures require authorization analogous to
the special authorization required for Category II or
III ILS procedures. Authorization required (AR)
procedures are to be conducted by aircrews meeting
special training requirements in aircraft that meet the
specified performance and functional requirements.

a. Unique characteristics of RNP AR Ap-


1. RNP value.

Each published line of minima

has an associated RNP value. The indicated value
defines the lateral and vertical performance require-
ments. A minimum RNP type is documented as part
of the RNP AR authorization for each operator and
may vary depending on aircraft configuration or


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