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Arrival Procedures

breakout is imminent because the blundering aircraft

will be on another frequency. It is important that,

when a pilot receives breakout instructions, the

assumption is made that a blundering aircraft is about

to (or has penetrated the NTZ) and is heading toward

his/her approach course. The pilot must initiate a

breakout as soon as safety allows. While conducting

PRM approaches, pilots must maintain an increased

sense of awareness in order to immediately react to an

ATC (breakout) instruction and maneuver (as

instructed by ATC) away from a blundering aircraft.

(b) Communications. Dual VHF communi-

cations procedures should be carefully followed. One

of the assumptions made that permits the safe conduct

of PRM approaches is that there will be no blocked


(c) Hand−flown Breakouts. The use of the

autopilot is encouraged while flying a PRM

approach, but the autopilot must be disengaged in the

rare event that a breakout is issued. Simulation

studies of breakouts have shown that a hand−flown

breakout can be initiated consistently faster than a

breakout performed using the autopilot.

(d) TCAS. The ATC breakout instruction is

the primary means of conflict resolution. TCAS, if

installed, provides another form of conflict resolution

in the unlikely event other separation standards

would fail. TCAS is not required to conduct a closely

spaced approach.

The TCAS provides only vertical resolution of air-

craft conflicts, while the ATC breakout instruction

provides both vertical and horizontal guidance for

conflict resolutions. Pilots should always immediate-

ly follow the TCAS Resolution Advisory (RA),

whenever it is received. Should a TCAS RA be re-

ceived before, during, or after an ATC breakout

instruction is issued, the pilot should follow the RA,

even if it conflicts with the climb/descent portion of

the breakout maneuver. If following an RA requires

deviating from an ATC clearance, the pilot must ad-

vise ATC as soon as practical. While following an

RA, it is extremely important that the pilot also com-

ply with the turn portion of the ATC breakout

instruction unless the pilot determines safety to be

factor. Adhering to these procedures assures the pilot

that acceptable “breakout” separation margins will

always be provided, even in the face of a normal pro-

cedural or system failure.

5−4−17. Simultaneous Converging

Instrument Approaches

a. ATC may conduct instrument approaches

simultaneously to converging runways; i.e., runways

having an included angle from 15 to 100 degrees, at

airports where a program has been specifically

approved to do so.

b. The basic concept requires that dedicated,

separate standard instrument approach procedures be

developed for each converging runway included.

These approaches can be identified by the letter “V”

in the title; for example, “ILS V Rwy 17

(CONVERGING)”.  Missed Approach Points must

be at least 3 miles apart and missed approach

procedures ensure that missed approach protected

airspace does not overlap.

c. Other requirements are: radar availability,

nonintersecting final approach courses, precision

approach capability for each runway and, if runways

intersect, controllers must be able to apply visual

separation as well as intersecting runway separation

criteria. Intersecting runways also require minimums

of at least 700 foot ceilings and 2 miles visibility.

Straight in approaches and landings must be made.

d. Whenever simultaneous converging approach-

es are in use, aircraft will be informed by the

controller as soon as feasible after initial contact or

via ATIS. Additionally, the radar controller will have

direct communications capability with the tower

controller where separation responsibility has not

been delegated to the tower.

5−4−18. RNP AR Instrument Approach

These procedures require authorization analogous to

the special authorization required for Category II or

III ILS procedures. Authorization required (AR)

procedures are to be conducted by aircrews meeting

special training requirements in aircraft that meet the

specified performance and functional requirements.

a. Unique characteristics of RNP AR Ap-


1. RNP value. Each published line of minima

has an associated RNP value. The indicated value

defines the lateral and vertical performance require-

ments. A minimum RNP type is documented as part

of the RNP AR authorization for each operator and

may vary depending on aircraft configuration or


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