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Arrival Procedures

5−4−21. Missed Approach

a. When a landing cannot be accomplished, advise

ATC and, upon reaching the missed approach point

defined on the approach procedure chart, the pilot

must comply with the missed approach instructions

for the procedure being used or with an alternate

missed approach procedure specified by ATC.

b. Obstacle protection for missed approach is

predicated on the missed approach being initiated at

the decision altitude/decision height (DA/DH) or at

the missed approach point and not lower than

minimum descent altitude (MDA). A climb gradient

of at least 200 feet per nautical mile is required,

(except for Copter approaches, where a climb of at

least 400 feet per nautical mile is required), unless a

higher climb gradient is published in the notes section

of the approach procedure chart. When higher than

standard climb gradients are specified, the end point

of the non−standard climb will be specified at either

an altitude or a fix. Pilots must preplan to ensure that

the aircraft can meet the climb gradient (expressed in

feet per nautical mile) required by the procedure in

the event of a missed approach, and be aware that

flying at a higher than anticipated ground speed

increases the climb rate requirement (feet per

minute). Tables for the conversion of climb gradients

(feet per nautical mile) to climb rate (feet per minute),

based on ground speed, are included on page D1 of

the U.S. Terminal Procedures booklets. Reasonable

buffers are provided for normal maneuvers. Howev-

er, no consideration is given to an abnormally early

turn. Therefore, when an early missed approach is

executed, pilots should, unless otherwise cleared by

ATC, fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate

to the missed approach point at or above the MDA or

DH before executing a turning maneuver.

c. If visual reference is lost while circling−to−land

from an instrument approach, the missed approach

specified for that particular procedure must be

followed (unless an alternate missed approach

procedure is specified by ATC). To become

established on the prescribed missed approach

course, the pilot should make an initial climbing turn

toward the landing runway and continue the turn until

established on the missed approach course. Inasmuch

as the circling maneuver may be accomplished in

more than one direction, different patterns will be

required to become established on the prescribed

missed approach course, depending on the aircraft

position at the time visual reference is lost.

Adherence to the procedure will help assure that an

aircraft will remain laterally within the circling and

missed approach obstruction clearance areas. Refer

to paragraph h concerning vertical obstruction

clearance when starting a missed approach at other

than the MAP. (See FIG 5−4−32.)

d. At locations where ATC radar service is

provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors

when provided by ATC in lieu of the published

missed approach procedure.  (See FIG 5−4−33.)

e. Some locations may have a preplanned alternate

missed approach procedure for use in the event the

primary NAVAID used for the missed approach

procedure is unavailable. To avoid confusion, the

alternate missed approach instructions are not

published on the chart. However, the alternate missed

approach holding pattern will be depicted on the

instrument approach chart for pilot situational

awareness and to assist ATC by not having to issue

detailed holding instructions. The alternate missed

approach may be based on NAVAIDs not used in the

approach procedure or the primary missed approach.

When the alternate missed approach procedure is

implemented by NOTAM, it becomes a mandatory

part of the procedure. The NOTAM will specify both

the textual instructions and any additional equipment

requirements necessary to complete the procedure.

Air traffic may also issue instructions for the alternate

missed approach when necessary, such as when the

primary missed approach NAVAID fails during the

approach. Pilots may reject an ATC clearance for an

alternate missed approach that requires equipment

not necessary for the published approach procedure

when the alternate missed approach is issued after

beginning the approach. However, when the alternate

missed approach is issued prior to beginning the

approach the pilot must either accept the entire

procedure (including the alternate missed approach),

request a different approach procedure, or coordinate

with ATC for alternative action to be taken, i.e.,

proceed to an alternate airport, etc.

f. When approach has been missed, request

clearance for specific action; i.e., to alternative

airport, another approach, etc.

g. Pilots must ensure that they have climbed to a

safe altitude prior to proceeding off the published

missed approach, especially in nonradar environ-

ments. Abandoning the missed approach prior to

reaching the published altitude may not provide


7110.65R CHG 2