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Arrival Procedures

ance, but it does not necessarily consider separation

from other air traffic. The pilot must consider other

factors such as the aircraft’s geographical location

with respect to the prescribed missed approach point,

direction of flight, and/or minimum turning altitudes

in the prescribed missed approach procedure. The pi-

lot must also consider aircraft performance, visual

climb restrictions, charted obstacles, published ob-

stacle departure procedure, takeoff visual climb

requirements as expressed by nonstandard takeoff

minima, other traffic expected to be in the vicinity, or

other factors not specifically expressed by the ap-

proach procedures.

5−4−22. Use of Enhanced Flight Vision

Systems (EFVS) on Instrument Approaches

a. Introduction. An EFVS uses a head−up display

(HUD), or an equivalent display that is a head−up

presentation, to combine flight information, flight

symbology, navigation guidance, and a real−time

image of the external scene to the pilot on one display.

Imaging sensors, which may be based on forward−

looking infrared (FLIR), millimeter wave

radiometry, millimeter wave radar, low−level light

intensification, or other real−time imaging technolo-

gies produce a real−time image of the outside scene.

During an instrument approach, an EFVS can enable

a pilot to see the approach lights, visual references

associated with the runway environment, and other

objects or features that might not be visible using

natural vision alone. Combining the flight informa-

tion, navigation guidance, and sensor imagery on a

HUD (or equivalent display) allows the pilot to

continue looking forward along the flightpath

throughout the entire approach, landing, and rollout.
An EFVS operation is an operation in which visibility

conditions require an EFVS to be used in lieu of natu-

ral vision to perform an approach or landing,

determine enhanced flight visibility, identify required

visual references, or conduct a rollout. There are two

types of EFVS operations:

1. EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout.
2. EFVS operations to 100 feet above the

touchdown zone elevation (TDZE).

b. EFVS Operations to Touchdown and Roll-

out. An EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout is

an operation in which the pilot uses the enhanced

vision imagery provided by an EFVS in lieu of natural

vision to descend below DA or DH to touchdown and

rollout. (See FIG 5−4−34.) These operations may be

conducted only on Standard Instrument Approach

Procedures (SIAP) or special IAPs that have a DA or

DH (for example, precision or APV approach). An

EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout may not be

conducted on an approach that has circling

minimums. The regulations for EFVS operations

to touchdown and rollout can be found in

14 CFR § 91.176(a).

c. EFVS Operations to 100 Feet Above the

TDZE. An EFVS operation to 100 feet above the

TDZE is an operation in which the pilot uses the

enhanced vision imagery provided by an EFVS in

lieu of natural vision to descend below DA/DH or

MDA down to 100 feet above the TDZE. (See

FIG 5−4−35.) Natural vision must be used to descend

below 100 feet above the TDZE to touchdown. These

operations may be conducted on SIAPs or special

IAPs that have a DA/DH or MDA. An EFVS

operation to 100 feet above the TDZE may not be

conducted on an approach that has circling

minimums. The regulations for EFVS operations to

100 feet above the TDZE can be found in

14 CFR § 91.176(b).

d. EFVS Equipment Requirements. An EFVS

that is installed on a U.S.−registered aircraft and is

used to conduct EFVS operations must conform to an

FAA−type design approval (i.e., a type certificate

(TC), amended TC, or supplemental type certificate

(STC)). A foreign−registered aircraft used to conduct

EFVS operations that does not have an FAA−type

design approval must be equipped with an EFVS that

has been approved by either the State of the Operator

or the State of Registry to meet the requirements of

ICAO Annex 6. Equipment requirements for an

EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout can be

found in 14 CFR § 91.176(a)(1), and the equipment

requirements for an EFVS operation to

100 feet above the TDZE can be found in

14 CFR § 91.176(b)(1). An operator can determine

the eligibility of their aircraft to conduct EFVS

operations by referring to the Airplane Flight

Manual, Airplane Flight Manual Supplement,

Rotorcraft Flight Manual, or Rotorcraft Flight

Manual Supplement as applicable.


7110.65R CHG 2