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AIM

10/12/17

5

−4−58

Arrival Procedures

ance, but it does not necessarily consider separation
from other air traffic. The pilot must consider other
factors such as the aircraft’s geographical location
with respect to the prescribed missed approach point,
direction of flight, and/or minimum turning altitudes
in the prescribed missed approach procedure. The pi-
lot must also consider aircraft performance, visual
climb restrictions, charted obstacles, published ob-
stacle departure procedure, takeoff visual climb
requirements as expressed by nonstandard takeoff
minima, other traffic expected to be in the vicinity, or
other factors not specifically expressed by the ap-
proach procedures.

5

−4−22. Use of Enhanced Flight Vision

Systems (EFVS) on Instrument Approaches

a. Introduction.

 An EFVS uses a head

−up display

(HUD), or an equivalent display that is a head

−up

presentation, to combine flight information, flight
symbology, navigation guidance, and a real

−time

image of the external scene to the pilot on one display.
Imaging sensors, which may be based on forward

looking infrared (FLIR), millimeter wave
radiometry, millimeter wave radar, low

−level light

intensification, or other real

−time imaging technolo-

gies produce a real

−time image of the outside scene.

During an instrument approach, an EFVS can enable
a pilot to see the approach lights, visual references
associated with the runway environment, and other
objects or features that might not be visible using
natural vision alone. Combining the flight informa-
tion, navigation guidance, and sensor imagery on a
HUD (or equivalent display) allows the pilot to
continue looking forward along the flightpath
throughout the entire approach, landing, and rollout.

An EFVS operation is an operation in which visibility
conditions require an EFVS to be used in lieu of natu-
ral vision to perform an approach or landing,
determine enhanced flight visibility, identify required
visual references, or conduct a rollout. There are two
types of EFVS operations:

1.

EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout.

2.

EFVS operations to 100 feet above the

touchdown zone elevation (TDZE).

b. EFVS Operations to Touchdown and Roll-

out.

 An EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout is

an operation in which the pilot uses the enhanced
vision imagery provided by an EFVS in lieu of natural
vision to descend below DA or DH to touchdown and
rollout. (See FIG 5

−4−34.) These operations may be

conducted only on Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures (SIAP) or special IAPs that have a DA or
DH (for example, precision or APV approach). An
EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout may not be
conducted on an approach that has circling
minimums. The regulations for EFVS operations
to touchdown and rollout can be found in
14 CFR § 91.176(a).

c. EFVS Operations to 100 Feet Above the

TDZE.

 An EFVS operation to 100 feet above the

TDZE is an operation in which the pilot uses the
enhanced vision imagery provided by an EFVS in
lieu of natural vision to descend below DA/DH or
MDA down to 100 feet above the TDZE. (See
FIG 5

−4−35.) Natural vision must be used to descend

below 100 feet above the TDZE to touchdown. These
operations may be conducted on SIAPs or special
IAPs that have a DA/DH or MDA. An EFVS
operation to 100 feet above the TDZE may not be
conducted on an approach that has circling
minimums. The regulations for EFVS operations to
100 feet above the TDZE can be found in
14 CFR § 91.176(b).

d. EFVS Equipment Requirements.

 An EFVS

that is installed on a U.S.

−registered aircraft and is

used to conduct EFVS operations must conform to an
FAA

−type design approval (i.e., a type certificate

(TC), amended TC, or supplemental type certificate
(STC)). A foreign

−registered aircraft used to conduct

EFVS operations that does not have an FAA

−type

design approval must be equipped with an EFVS that
has been approved by either the State of the Operator
or the State of Registry to meet the requirements of
ICAO Annex 6. Equipment requirements for an
EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout can be
found in 14 CFR § 91.176(a)(1), and the equipment
requirements for an EFVS operation to
100 feet above the TDZE can be found in
14 CFR § 91.176(b)(1). An operator can determine
the eligibility of their aircraft to conduct EFVS
operations by referring to the Airplane Flight
Manual, Airplane Flight Manual Supplement,
Rotorcraft Flight Manual, or Rotorcraft Flight
Manual Supplement as applicable.

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

3/29/18