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AIM

10/12/17

5

−4−60

Arrival Procedures

e. Operating Requirements. 

Any operator who

conducts EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout
must have an OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA that
specifically authorizes those operations. An opera-
tor’s authorization to conduct EFVS operations to
touchdown and rollout specifies a visibility minimum
for the operation. Parts 91K, 121, 125, 129, and 135
operators who conduct EFVS operations to 100 feet
above the TDZE must have an OpSpec, MSpec, or
LOA that specifically authorizes the operation.
Part 91 operators (other than 91K operators) are not
required to have an LOA to conduct EFVS operations
to 100 feet in the United States. Any operator
conducting an EFVS operation during an authorized
Category II or III operation must have an OpSpec,
MSpec, or LOA authorizing EFVS operations during
Category II or Category III operations.

f.

Currently, EFVS operations in rotorcraft can

only be conducted on IAPs that are flown to a runway.
Instrument approach criteria, procedures, and
appropriate visual references have not yet been
developed for straight

−in landing operations below

DA/DH or MDA under IFR to heliports or platforms.
An EFVS cannot be used in lieu of natural vision to
descend below published minimums on copter
approaches to a point in space (PinS) followed by a
“proceed visual flight rules (VFR)” visual segment,
or on approaches designed to a specific landing site
using a “proceed visually” visual segment.

g.

A pilot who conducts EFVS operations must

receive ground and flight training specific to the
EFVS operation to be conducted. The training must
be obtained from an authorized training provider
under a training program approved by the FAA.
Additionally, recent flight experience and proficien-
cy or competency check requirements apply to EFVS
operations. These requirements are addressed in
14 CFR §§ 61.66, 91.1065, 121.441, Appendix F to
Part 121, 125.287, and 135.293.

h. Enhanced Flight Visibility and Visual

Reference Requirements.

 To descend below

DA/DH or MDA during EFVS operations under
14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b), a pilot must make a
determination that the enhanced flight visibility
observed by using an EFVS is not less than what is
prescribed by the IAP being flown. In addition, the
visual references required in 14 CFR § 91.176(a) or
(b) must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the
pilot using the EFVS. The determination of enhanced

flight visibility is a separate action from that of
identifying required visual references, and is
different from ground

−reported visibility. Even

though the reported visibility or the visibility
observed using natural vision may be less, as long as
the EFVS provides the required enhanced flight
visibility and a pilot meets all of the other
requirements, the pilot can continue descending
below DA/DH or MDA using the EFVS. Suitable
enhanced flight visibility is necessary to ensure the
aircraft is in a position to continue the approach and
land. It is important to understand that using an EFVS
does not result in obtaining lower minima with
respect to the visibility or the DA/DH or MDA
specified in the IAP. An EFVS simply provides
another means of operating in the visual segment of
an IAP. The DA/DH or MDA and the visibility value
specified in the IAP to be flown do not change.

i. Flight Planning and Beginning or Continuing

an Approach Under IFR.

 14 CFR Parts 121, 125,

and 135 prohibit dispatching a flight, releasing a
flight, taking off under IFR, or beginning or
continuing an approach when weather conditions are
less than the authorized minimums. A Part 121, 125,
or 135 operator ’s OpSpec or LOA for EFVS
operations authorizes a visibility for dispatching or
releasing a flight and for beginning or continuing an
approach. These operational minimums are based on
the demonstrated performance of the EFVS. Once a
pilot reaches DA/DH or MDA, the pilot conducts the
EFVS operation in accordance with
14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b) and their authorization to
conduct EFVS operations.

j. Missed Approach Considerations.

 A missed

approach after passing the DA/DH, or beyond the
missed approach point (MAP), involves additional
risk until established on the published missed
approach segment. Initiating a go

−around after

passing the published MAP may result in loss of
obstacle clearance. As with any approach, pilot
planning should include contingencies between the
published MAP and touchdown with reference to
obstacle clearance, aircraft performance, and alter-
nate escape plans.

k. Light Emitting Diode (LED) Airport Light-

ing Impact on EFVS Operations.

 Incandescent

lamps have been replaced with LEDs at some airports
in threshold lights, taxiway edge lights, taxiway
centerline lights, low intensity runway edge lights,
windcone lights, beacons, and some obstruction

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

3/29/18