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Arrival Procedures

e. Operating Requirements. Any operator who

conducts EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout

must have an OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA that

specifically authorizes those operations. An opera-

tor’s authorization to conduct EFVS operations to

touchdown and rollout specifies a visibility minimum

for the operation. Parts 91K, 121, 125, 129, and 135

operators who conduct EFVS operations to 100 feet

above the TDZE must have an OpSpec, MSpec, or

LOA that specifically authorizes the operation.

Part 91 operators (other than 91K operators) are not

required to have an LOA to conduct EFVS operations

to 100 feet in the United States. Any operator

conducting an EFVS operation during an authorized

Category II or III operation must have an OpSpec,

MSpec, or LOA authorizing EFVS operations during

Category II or Category III operations.

f. Currently, EFVS operations in rotorcraft can

only be conducted on IAPs that are flown to a runway.

Instrument approach criteria, procedures, and

appropriate visual references have not yet been

developed for straight−in landing operations below

DA/DH or MDA under IFR to heliports or platforms.

An EFVS cannot be used in lieu of natural vision to

descend below published minimums on copter

approaches to a point in space (PinS) followed by a

“proceed visual flight rules (VFR)” visual segment,

or on approaches designed to a specific landing site

using a “proceed visually” visual segment.

g. A pilot who conducts EFVS operations must

receive ground and flight training specific to the

EFVS operation to be conducted. The training must

be obtained from an authorized training provider

under a training program approved by the FAA.

Additionally, recent flight experience and proficien-

cy or competency check requirements apply to EFVS

operations. These requirements are addressed in

14 CFR §§ 61.66, 91.1065, 121.441, Appendix F to

Part 121, 125.287, and 135.293.

h. Enhanced Flight Visibility and Visual

Reference Requirements. To descend below

DA/DH or MDA during EFVS operations under

14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b), a pilot must make a

determination that the enhanced flight visibility

observed by using an EFVS is not less than what is

prescribed by the IAP being flown. In addition, the

visual references required in 14 CFR § 91.176(a) or

(b) must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the

pilot using the EFVS. The determination of enhanced

flight visibility is a separate action from that of

identifying required visual references, and is

different from ground−reported visibility. Even

though the reported visibility or the visibility

observed using natural vision may be less, as long as

the EFVS provides the required enhanced flight

visibility and a pilot meets all of the other

requirements, the pilot can continue descending

below DA/DH or MDA using the EFVS. Suitable

enhanced flight visibility is necessary to ensure the

aircraft is in a position to continue the approach and

land. It is important to understand that using an EFVS

does not result in obtaining lower minima with

respect to the visibility or the DA/DH or MDA

specified in the IAP. An EFVS simply provides

another means of operating in the visual segment of

an IAP. The DA/DH or MDA and the visibility value

specified in the IAP to be flown do not change.

i. Flight Planning and Beginning or Continuing

an Approach Under IFR. 14 CFR Parts 121, 125,

and 135 prohibit dispatching a flight, releasing a

flight, taking off under IFR, or beginning or

continuing an approach when weather conditions are

less than the authorized minimums. A Part 121, 125,

or 135 operator’s OpSpec or LOA for EFVS

operations authorizes a visibility for dispatching or

releasing a flight and for beginning or continuing an

approach. These operational minimums are based on

the demonstrated performance of the EFVS. Once a

pilot reaches DA/DH or MDA, the pilot conducts the

EFVS operation in accordance with

14 CFR § 91.176(a) or (b) and their authorization to

conduct EFVS operations.

j. Missed Approach Considerations. A missed

approach after passing the DA/DH, or beyond the

missed approach point (MAP), involves additional

risk until established on the published missed

approach segment. Initiating a go−around after

passing the published MAP may result in loss of

obstacle clearance. As with any approach, pilot

planning should include contingencies between the

published MAP and touchdown with reference to

obstacle clearance, aircraft performance, and alter-

nate escape plans.

k. Light Emitting Diode (LED) Airport Light-

ing Impact on EFVS Operations. Incandescent

lamps have been replaced with LEDs at some airports

in threshold lights, taxiway edge lights, taxiway

centerline lights, low intensity runway edge lights,

windcone lights, beacons, and some obstruction


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