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Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities

2. Be aware that this service is not always

available and that many factors affect the ability of

the controller to be aware of a situation in which

unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or another

aircraft may be developing.

b. Controller.

1. Issues a safety alert if aware an aircraft under

their control is at an altitude which, in the controller’s

judgment, places the aircraft in unsafe proximity to

terrain, obstructions or another aircraft. Types of

safety alerts are:

(a) Terrain or Obstruction Alert. Immedi-

ately issued to an aircraft under their control if aware

the aircraft is at an altitude believed to place the

aircraft in unsafe proximity to terrain or obstructions.

(b) Aircraft Conflict Alert. Immediately

issued to an aircraft under their control if aware of an

aircraft not under their control at an altitude believed

to place the aircraft in unsafe proximity to each other.

With the alert, they offer the pilot an alternative, if


2. Discontinue further alerts if informed by the

pilot action is being taken to correct the situation or

that the other aircraft is in sight.

5−5−8. See and Avoid

a. Pilot. When meteorological conditions permit,

regardless of type of flight plan or whether or not

under control of a radar facility, the pilot is

responsible to see and avoid other traffic, terrain, or


b. Controller.

1. Provides radar traffic information to radar

identified aircraft operating outside positive control

airspace on a workload permitting basis.

2. Issues safety alerts to aircraft under their

control if aware the aircraft is at an altitude believed

to place the aircraft in unsafe proximity to terrain,

obstructions, or other aircraft.

5−5−9. Speed Adjustments

a. Pilot.

1. Advises ATC any time cruising airspeed

varies plus or minus 5 percent or 10 knots, whichever

is greater, from that given in the flight plan.

2. Complies with speed adjustments from ATC


(a) The minimum or maximum safe airspeed

for any particular operation is greater or less than the

requested airspeed. In such cases, advises ATC.


It is the pilot’s responsibility and prerogative to refuse

speed adjustments considered excessive or contrary to the

aircraft’s operating specifications.

(b) Operating at or above 10,000 feet MSL on

an ATC assigned SPEED ADJUSTMENT of more

than 250 knots IAS and subsequent clearance is

received for descent below 10,000 feet MSL. In such

cases, pilots are expected to comply with 14 CFR

Section 91.117(a).

3. When complying with speed adjustment

assignments, maintains an indicated airspeed within

plus or minus 10 knots or 0.02 Mach number of the

specified speed.

b. Controller.

1. Assigns speed adjustments to aircraft when

necessary but not as a substitute for good vectoring


2. Adheres to the restrictions published in FAA

Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, as to when

speed adjustment procedures may be applied.

3. Avoids speed adjustments requiring alternate

decreases and increases.

4. Assigns speed adjustments to a specified IAS

(KNOTS)/Mach number or to increase or decrease

speed using increments of 5 knots or multiples


5. Terminates ATC-assigned speed adjustments

when no longer required by issuing further

instructions to pilots in the following manner:

(a) Advises pilots to “resume normal speed”

when the aircraft is on a heading, random routing,

charted procedure, or route without published speed


(b) Instructs pilots to “comply with speed

restrictions” when the aircraft is joining or resuming

a charted procedure or route with published speed


The phraseology “Climb via SID” requires compliance
with all altitude and/or speed restrictions depicted on the