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Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities

their entirety, rather than loading RNAV route
waypoints from the database into the flight plan
individually. However, selecting and inserting
individual, named fixes from the database is
permitted, provided all fixes along the published
route to be flown are inserted.


Pilots must not change any database

waypoint type from a fly

−by to fly−over, or vice

versa. No other modification of database waypoints
or the creation of user

−defined waypoints on

published RNAV or RNP procedures is permitted,
except to:


Change altitude and/or airspeed waypoint

constraints to comply with an ATC clearance/


Insert a waypoint along the published

route to assist in complying with ATC instruction,
example, “Descend via the WILMS arrival except
cross 30 north of BRUCE at/or below FL 210.” This
is limited only to systems that allow along


waypoint construction.


Pilots of FMS

−equipped aircraft, who are

assigned an RNAV DP or STAR procedure and
subsequently receive a change of runway, transition
or procedure, must verify that the appropriate
changes are loaded and available for navigation.


For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots must use

a CDI, flight director and/or autopilot, in lateral
navigation mode. Other methods providing an
equivalent level of performance may also be


For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots of

aircraft without GPS, using DME/DME/IRU, must
ensure the aircraft navigation system position is
confirmed, within 1,000 feet, at the start point of

−off roll. The use of an automatic or manual

runway update is an acceptable means of compliance
with this requirement. Other methods providing an
equivalent level of performance may also be


For procedures or routes requiring the use of

GPS, if the navigation system does not automatically
alert the flight crew of a loss of GPS, the operator

must develop procedures to verify correct GPS


RNAV terminal procedures (DP and STAR)

may be amended by ATC issuing radar vectors and/or
clearances direct to a waypoint. Pilots should avoid
premature manual deletion of waypoints from their
active “legs” page to allow for rejoining procedures.


RAIM Prediction: If TSO

−C129 equipment

is used to solely satisfy the RNAV and RNP
requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be
confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and
time). If RAIM is not available, pilots need an
approved alternate means of navigation.


AIM, Paragraph 5

−1−16 , RNAV and RNP Operations

11. Definition of “established” for RNAV and

RNP operations.

 An aircraft is considered to be

established on-course during RNAV and RNP
operations anytime it is within 1 times the required
accuracy for the segment being flown. For example,
while operating on a Q-Route (RNAV 2), the aircraft
is considered to be established on-course when it is
within 2 NM of the course centerline.


1. Pilots must be aware of how their navigation system
operates, along with any AFM limitations, and confirm
that the aircraft’s lateral deviation display (or map display
if being used as an allowed alternate means) is suitable for
the accuracy of the segment being flown. Automatic scaling
and alerting changes are appropriate for some operations.
For example, TSO-C129 systems change within 30 miles of
destination and within 2 miles of FAF to support approach
operations. For some navigation systems and operations,
manual selection of scaling will be necessary.

2. Pilots flying FMS equipped aircraft with barometric
vertical navigation (Baro-VNAV) may descend when the
aircraft is established on-course following FMS leg
transition to the next segment. Leg transition normally
occurs at the turn bisector for a fly-by waypoint (reference
paragraph 1-2-1 for more on waypoints). When using full
automation, pilots should monitor the aircraft to ensure the
aircraft is turning at appropriate lead times and
descending once established on-course.

3. Pilots flying TSO-C129 navigation system equipped
aircraft without full automation should use normal lead
points to begin the turn. Pilots may descend when
established on-course on the next segment of the approach.