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users. FIG 7−1−1 provides conversion tables for the

most used weather elements that will be encountered

by pilots.

7−1−2. FAA Weather Services

a. The FAA provides the Flight Service program,

which serves the weather needs of pilots through its

flight service stations (FSS) (both government and

contract via 1-800-WX-BRIEF) and via the Internet,

through Leidos Flight Service.

b. The FAA maintains an extensive surface

weather observing program. Airport observations

(METAR and SPECI) in the U.S. are provided by

automated observing systems. Various levels of

human oversight of the METAR and SPECI reports

and augmentation may be provided at select larger

airports by either government or contract personnel

qualified to report specified weather elements that

cannot be detected by the automated observing


c. Other Sources of Weather Information

1. In Alaska, Telephone Information Briefing

Service (TIBS) (FSS); Transcribed Weather Broad-

cast (TWEB) locations, and telephone access to the

TWEB (TEL−TWEB) provide continuously updated

recorded weather information for short or local

flights. Separate paragraphs in this section give

additional information regarding these services.


AIM, Paragraph 7−1−8 , Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)

(Alaska only)

AIM, Paragraph 7−1−9 , Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB)

(Alaska Only)

2. Weather and aeronautical information are

also available from numerous private industry

sources on an individual or contract pay basis.

Information on how to obtain this service should be

available from local pilot organizations.

3. Pilots can access Leidos Flight Services via

the Internet. Pilots can receive preflight weather data

and file domestic VFR and IFR flight plans. The

following is the FAA contract vendor:

Leidos Flight Service

Internet Access:

For customer service: 1−800−WXBRIEF

7−1−3. Use of Aviation Weather Products

a. Air carriers and operators certificated under the

provisions of 14 CFR Part 119 are required to use the

aeronautical weather information systems defined in

the Operations Specifications issued to that certifi-

cate holder by the FAA. These systems may utilize

basic FAA/National Weather Service (NWS) weather

services, contractor− or operator−proprietary weath-

er services and/or Enhanced Weather Information

System (EWINS) when approved in the Operations

Specifications. As an integral part of this system

approval, the procedures for collecting, producing

and disseminating aeronautical weather information,

as well as the crew member and dispatcher training to

support the use of system weather products, must be

accepted or approved.

b. Operators not certificated under the provisions

of 14 CFR Part 119 are encouraged to use FAA/NWS

products through Flight Service Stations, Leidos

Flight Service, and/or Flight Information Services−

Broadcast (FIS−B).

c. The suite of available aviation weather product

types is expanding, with the development of new

sensor systems, algorithms and forecast models. The

FAA and NWS, supported by various weather

research laboratories and corporations under contract

to the Government, develop and implement new

aviation weather product types. The FAA’s NextGen

Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP)

facilitates collaboration between the NWS, the FAA,

and various industry and research representatives.

This collaboration ensures that user needs and

technical readiness requirements are met before

experimental products mature to operational applica-


d. The AWRP manages the transfer of aviation

weather R&D to operational use through technical

review panels and conducting safety assessments to

ensure that newly developed aviation weather

products meet regulatory requirements and enhance



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