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Potential Flight Hazards

TBL 7−5−1

Jurisdictions Controlling Navigable Bodies of Water

Authority to Consult For Use of a Body of Water




Wilderness Area

U.S. Department

of Agriculture,

Forest Service

Local forest ranger

National Forest

USDA Forest


Local forest ranger

National Park

U.S. Department

of the Interior,

National Park


Local park ranger

Indian Reservation USDI, Bureau of

Indian Affairs

Local Bureau


State Park

State government

or state forestry or

park service

Local state

aviation office for



Canadian National

and Provincial


Supervised and

restricted on an

individual basis

from province to

province and by


departments of the



consult Canadian

Flight Information

Manual and/or

Water Aerodrome



Superintendent in

an emergency

e. The FAA recommends that each seaplane owner

or operator provide flotation gear for occupants any

time a seaplane operates on or near water. 14 CFR

Section 91.205(b)(12) requires approved flotation

gear for aircraft operated for hire over water and

beyond power-off gliding distance from shore.

FAA-approved gear differs from that required for

navigable waterways under USCG rules. FAA-ap-

proved life vests are inflatable designs as compared

to the USCG’s noninflatable PFD’s that may consist

of solid, bulky material. Such USCG PFDs are

impractical for seaplanes and other aircraft because

they may block passage through the relatively narrow

exits available to pilots and passengers. Life vests

approved under Technical Standard Order (TSO)

TSO−C13E  contain fully inflatable compartments.

The wearer inflates the compartments (AFTER

exiting the aircraft) primarily by independent CO2

cartridges, with an oral inflation tube as a backup. The

flotation gear also contains a water-activated,

self-illuminating signal light. The fact that pilots and

passengers can easily don and wear inflatable life

vests (when not inflated) provides maximum

effectiveness and allows for unrestricted movement.

It is imperative that passengers are briefed on the

location and proper use of available PFDs prior to

leaving the dock.

f. The FAA recommends that seaplane owners and

operators obtain Advisory Circular (AC) 91−69,

Seaplane Safety for 14 CFR Part 91 Operations, free

from the U.S. Department of Transportation,

Subsequent Distribution Office, SVC−121.23, Ard-

more East Business Center, 3341 Q 75



Landover, MD  20785; fax: (301) 386−5394. The

USCG Navigation Rules International−Inland

(COMDTINSTM 16672.2B) is available for a fee

from the Government Publishing Office by facsimile

request to (202) 512−2250, and can be ordered using

Mastercard or Visa.

7−5−9. Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash

a. Severe volcanic eruptions which send ash and

sulphur dioxide (SO


) gas into the upper atmosphere

occur somewhere around the world several times

each year. Flying into a volcanic ash cloud can be

exceedingly dangerous. A B747−200 lost all four

engines after such an encounter and a B747−400 had

the same nearly catastrophic experience. Piston−

powered aircraft are less likely to lose power but

severe damage is almost certain to ensue after an

encounter with a volcanic ash cloud which is only a

few hours old.

b. Most important is to avoid any encounter with

volcanic ash. The ash plume may not be visible,

especially in instrument conditions or at night; and

even if visible, it is difficult to distinguish visually

between an ash cloud and an ordinary weather cloud.

Volcanic ash clouds are not displayed on airborne or

ATC radar. The pilot must rely on reports from air

traffic controllers and other pilots to determine the

location of the ash cloud and use that information to

remain well clear of the area. Additionally, the

presence of a sulphur-like odor throughout the cabin

may indicate the presence of SO


 emitted by volcanic

activity, but may or may not indicate the presence of

volcanic ash. Every attempt should be made to remain

on the upwind side of the volcano.

c. It is recommended that pilots encountering an

ash cloud should immediately reduce thrust to idle

(altitude permitting), and reverse course in order to