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AIM

10/12/17

7

−5−7

Potential Flight Hazards

TBL 7

−5−1

Jurisdictions Controlling Navigable Bodies of Water

Authority to Consult For Use of a Body of Water

Location

Authority

Contact

Wilderness Area

U.S. Department
of Agriculture,
Forest Service

Local forest ranger

National Forest

USDA Forest
Service

Local forest ranger

National Park

U.S. Department
of the Interior,
National Park
Service

Local park ranger

Indian Reservation USDI, Bureau of

Indian Affairs

Local Bureau
office

State Park

State government
or state forestry or
park service

Local state
aviation office for
further
information

Canadian National
and Provincial
Parks

Supervised and
restricted on an
individual basis
from province to
province and by
different
departments of the
Canadian
government;
consult Canadian
Flight Information
Manual and/or
Water Aerodrome
Supplement

Park
Superintendent in
an emergency

e.

The FAA recommends that each seaplane owner

or operator provide flotation gear for occupants any
time a seaplane operates on or near water. 14 CFR
Section 91.205(b)(12) requires approved flotation
gear for aircraft operated for hire over water and
beyond power-off gliding distance from shore.
FAA-approved gear differs from that required for
navigable waterways under USCG rules. FAA-ap-
proved life vests are inflatable designs as compared
to the USCG’s noninflatable PFD’s that may consist
of solid, bulky material. Such USCG PFDs are
impractical for seaplanes and other aircraft because
they may block passage through the relatively narrow
exits available to pilots and passengers. Life vests
approved under Technical Standard Order (TSO)
TSO

−C13E  contain fully inflatable compartments.

The wearer inflates the compartments (AFTER
exiting the aircraft) primarily by independent CO2
cartridges, with an oral inflation tube as a backup. The
flotation gear also contains a water-activated,
self-illuminating signal light. The fact that pilots and

passengers can easily don and wear inflatable life
vests (when not inflated) provides maximum
effectiveness and allows for unrestricted movement.
It is imperative that passengers are briefed on the
location and proper use of available PFDs prior to
leaving the dock.

f.

The FAA recommends that seaplane owners and

operators obtain Advisory Circular (AC) 91

−69,

Seaplane Safety for 14 CFR Part 91 Operations, free
from the U.S. Department of Transportation,
Subsequent Distribution Office, SVC

−121.23, Ard-

more East Business Center, 3341 Q 75

th

 Avenue,

Landover, MD  20785; fax: (301) 386

−5394. The

USCG Navigation Rules International

−Inland

(COMDTINSTM 16672.2B) is available for a fee
from the Government Publishing Office by facsimile
request to (202) 512

−2250, and can be ordered using

Mastercard or Visa.

7

−5−9. Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash

a.

Severe volcanic eruptions which send ash and

sulphur dioxide (SO

2

) gas

 into the upper atmosphere

occur somewhere around the world several times
each year. Flying into a volcanic ash cloud can be
exceedingly dangerous. A B747

−200 lost all four

engines after such an encounter and a B747

−400 had

the same nearly catastrophic experience. Piston

powered aircraft are less likely to lose power but
severe damage is almost certain to ensue after an
encounter with a volcanic ash cloud which is only a
few hours old.

b.

Most important is to avoid any encounter with

volcanic ash. The ash plume may not be visible,
especially in instrument conditions or at night; and
even if visible, it is difficult to distinguish visually
between an ash cloud and an ordinary weather cloud.
Volcanic ash clouds are not displayed on airborne or
ATC radar. The pilot must rely on reports from air
traffic controllers and other pilots to determine the
location of the ash cloud and use that information to
remain well clear of the area. Additionally, the
presence of a sulphur-like odor throughout the cabin
may indicate the presence of SO

2

 emitted by volcanic

activity, but may or may not indicate the presence of
volcanic ash. Every attempt should be made to remain
on the upwind side of the volcano.

c.

It is recommended that pilots encountering an

ash cloud should immediately reduce thrust to idle
(altitude permitting), and reverse course in order to

3/29/18

AIM