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Pilot/Controller Glossary



identified and in communication with ATC by

ensuring that radar targets do not touch. Pertinent

traffic advisories shall be issued when this procedure

is applied.

Note: This procedure shall not be provided utilizing

mosaic radar systems.

CONFORMANCE− The condition established when

an aircraft’s actual position is within the conformance

region constructed around that aircraft at its position,

according to the trajectory associated with the

aircraft’s Current Plan.

CONFORMANCE REGION− A volume, bounded

laterally, vertically, and longitudinally, within which

an aircraft must be at a given time in order to be in

conformance with the Current Plan Trajectory for that

aircraft. At a given time, the conformance region is

determined by the simultaneous application of the

lateral, vertical, and longitudinal conformance

bounds for the aircraft at the position defined by time

and aircraft’s trajectory.

CONSOLAN− A low frequency, long-distance

NAVAID used principally for transoceanic naviga-



a. Establish communication with (followed by the

name of the facility and, if appropriate, the frequency

to be used).

b. A flight condition wherein the pilot ascertains

the attitude of his/her aircraft and navigates by visual

reference to the surface.


CONTACT APPROACH− An approach wherein an

aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic

control authorization, operating clear of clouds with

at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable

expectation of continuing to the destination airport in

those conditions, may deviate from the instrument

approach procedure and proceed to the destination

airport by visual reference to the surface. This

approach will only be authorized when requested by

the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the

destination airport is at least 1 statute mile.

(Refer to AIM.)


considered contaminated whenever standing water,

ice, snow, slush, frost in any form, heavy rubber, or

other substances are present. A runway is contami-

nated with respect to rubber deposits or other

friction-degrading substances when the average

friction value for any 500-foot segment of the runway

within the ALD fails below the recommended

minimum friction level and the average friction value

in the adjacent 500-foot segments falls below the

maintenance planning friction level.
CONTERMINOUS U.S.− The 48 adjoining States

and the District of Columbia.

located on the continent of North America and the

District of Columbia.
− When used as a control instruction

should be followed by another word or words

clarifying what is expected of the pilot. Example:

“continue taxi,” “continue descent,” “continue

inbound,” etc.
CONTROL AREA [ICAO]− A controlled airspace

extending upwards from a specified limit above the

CONTROL SECTOR− An airspace area of defined

horizontal and vertical dimensions for which a

controller or group of controllers has air traffic

control responsibility, normally within an air route

traffic control center or an approach control facility.

Sectors are established based on predominant traffic

flows, altitude strata, and controller workload. Pilot

communications during operations within a sector

are normally maintained on discrete frequencies

assigned to the sector.


CONTROL SLASH− A radar beacon slash repre-

senting the actual position of the associated aircraft.

Normally, the control slash is the one closest to the

interrogating radar beacon site. When ARTCC radar

is operating in narrowband (digitized) mode, the

control slash is converted to a target symbol.

defined dimensions within which air traffic control

service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights

in accordance with the airspace classification.

a. Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers

Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E


b. Controlled airspace is also that airspace within

which all aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot

qualifications, operating rules, and equipment

Pilot/Controller Glossary