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Navigation Aids

magenta flag symbols. VFR waypoints collocated

with visual check points will be pronounceable based

on the name of the visual check point and may be used

for ATC communications. Each VFR waypoint name

will appear in parentheses adjacent to the geographic

location on the chart. Latitude/longitude data for all

established VFR waypoints may be found in the

appropriate regional Chart Supplement U.S.

(3) VFR waypoints may not be used on IFR

flight plans. VFR waypoints are not recognized by the

IFR system and will be rejected for IFR routing


(4) Pilots may use the five−letter identifier

as a waypoint in the route of flight section on a VFR

flight plan. Pilots may use the VFR waypoints only

when operating under VFR conditions. The point

may represent an intended course change or describe

the planned route of flight. This VFR filing would be

similar to how a VOR would be used in a route of


(5) VFR waypoints intended for use during

flight should be loaded into the receiver while on the

ground. Once airborne, pilots should avoid program-

ming routes or VFR waypoint chains into their


(6) Pilots should be vigilant to see and

avoid other traffic when near VFR waypoints. With

the increased use of GPS navigation and accuracy,

expect increased traffic near VFR waypoints.

Regardless of the class of airspace, monitor the

available ATC frequency for traffic information on

other aircraft operating in the vicinity.  See Paragraph

7−5−2, VFR in Congested Areas, for more


2. IFR Use of GPS

(a) General Requirements. Authorization

to conduct any GPS operation under IFR requires:

(1) GPS navigation equipment used for IFR

operations must be approved in accordance with the

requirements specified in Technical Standard Order

(TSO) TSO−C129(), TSO−C196(), TSO−C145(), or

TSO−C146(), and the installation must be done in

accordance with Advisory Circular AC 20−138,

Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Naviga-

tion Systems. Equipment approved in accordance

with TSO−C115a does not meet the requirements of

TSO−C129.  Visual flight rules (VFR) and hand−held

GPS systems are not authorized for IFR navigation,

instrument approaches, or as a principal instrument

flight reference.

(2) Aircraft using un-augmented GPS

(TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under

IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and

operational means of navigation suitable for

navigating the proposed route of flight. (Examples of

alternate navigation equipment include VOR or

DME/DME/IRU capability). Active monitoring of

alternative navigation equipment is not required

when RAIM is available for integrity monitoring.

Active monitoring of an alternate means of

navigation is required when the GPS RAIM

capability is lost.

(3) Procedures must be established for use

in the event that the loss of RAIM capability is

predicted to occur. In situations where RAIM is

predicted to be unavailable, the flight must rely on

other approved navigation equipment, re-route to

where RAIM is available, delay departure, or cancel

the flight.

(4) The GPS operation must be conducted

in accordance with the FAA−approved aircraft flight

manual (AFM) or flight manual supplement. Flight

crew members must be thoroughly familiar with the

particular GPS equipment installed in the aircraft, the

receiver operation manual, and the AFM or flight

manual supplement. Operation, receiver presenta-

tion and capabilities of GPS equipment vary. Due to

these differences, operation of GPS receivers of

different brands, or even models of the same brand,

under IFR should not be attempted without thorough

operational knowledge. Most receivers have a

built−in simulator mode, which allows the pilot to

become familiar with operation prior to attempting

operation in the aircraft.

(5) Aircraft navigating by IFR−approved

GPS are considered to be performance−based

navigation (PBN) aircraft and have special equip-

ment suffixes. File the appropriate equipment suffix

in accordance with TBL 5−1−3 on the ATC flight

plan. If GPS avionics become inoperative, the pilot

should advise ATC and amend the equipment suffix.

(6) Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the

pilot must review appropriate NOTAMs and

aeronautical information. (See GPS NOTAMs/Aero-

nautical Information).