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Navigation Aids

magenta flag symbols. VFR waypoints collocated
with visual check points will be pronounceable based
on the name of the visual check point and may be used
for ATC communications. Each VFR waypoint name
will appear in parentheses adjacent to the geographic
location on the chart. Latitude/longitude data for all
established VFR waypoints may be found in the
appropriate regional Chart Supplement U.S.


VFR waypoints may not be used on IFR

flight plans. VFR waypoints are not recognized by the
IFR system and will be rejected for IFR routing


Pilots may use the five

−letter identifier

as a waypoint in the route of flight section on a VFR
flight plan. Pilots may use the VFR waypoints only
when operating under VFR conditions. The point
may represent an intended course change or describe
the planned route of flight. This VFR filing would be
similar to how a VOR would be used in a route of


VFR waypoints intended for use during

flight should be loaded into the receiver while on the
ground. Once airborne, pilots should avoid program-
ming routes or VFR waypoint chains into their


Pilots should be vigilant to see and

avoid other traffic when near VFR waypoints. With
the increased use of GPS navigation and accuracy,
expect increased traffic near VFR waypoints.
Regardless of the class of airspace, monitor the
available ATC frequency for traffic information on
other aircraft operating in the vicinity.  See Paragraph

−5−2, VFR in Congested Areas, for more


2. IFR Use of GPS

(a) General Requirements. 


to conduct any GPS operation under IFR requires:


GPS navigation equipment used for IFR

operations must be approved in accordance with the
requirements specified in Technical Standard Order

−C129(), TSO−C196(), TSO−C145(), or


−C146(), and the installation must be done in

accordance with Advisory Circular AC 20


Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Naviga-
tion Systems. Equipment approved in accordance
with TSO

−C115a does not meet the requirements of


−C129.  Visual flight rules (VFR) and hand−held

GPS systems are not authorized for IFR navigation,
instrument approaches, or as a principal instrument
flight reference.


Aircraft using un-augmented GPS

(TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under
IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and
operational means of navigation suitable for
navigating the proposed route of flight. (Examples of
alternate navigation equipment include VOR or
DME/DME/IRU capability). Active monitoring of
alternative navigation equipment is not required
when RAIM is available for integrity monitoring.
Active monitoring of an alternate means of
navigation is required when the GPS RAIM
capability is lost.


Procedures must be established for use

in the event that the loss of RAIM capability is
predicted to occur. In situations where RAIM is
predicted to be unavailable, the flight must rely on
other approved navigation equipment, re-route to
where RAIM is available, delay departure, or cancel
the flight.


The GPS operation must be conducted

in accordance with the FAA

−approved aircraft flight

manual (AFM) or flight manual supplement. Flight
crew members must be thoroughly familiar with the
particular GPS equipment installed in the aircraft, the
receiver operation manual, and the AFM or flight
manual supplement. Operation, receiver presenta-
tion and capabilities of GPS equipment vary. Due to
these differences, operation of GPS receivers of
different brands, or even models of the same brand,
under IFR should not be attempted without thorough
operational knowledge. Most receivers have a

−in simulator mode, which allows the pilot to

become familiar with operation prior to attempting
operation in the aircraft.


Aircraft navigating by IFR


GPS are considered to be performance


navigation (PBN) aircraft and have special equip-
ment suffixes. File the appropriate equipment suffix
in accordance with TBL 5

−1−3 on the ATC flight

plan. If GPS avionics become inoperative, the pilot
should advise ATC and amend the equipment suffix.


Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the

pilot must review appropriate NOTAMs and
aeronautical information. (See GPS NOTAMs/Aero-
nautical Information).