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18 

14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 1.2 

surface of the earth until it touches it 
at the next point of landing. 

Traffic pattern 

means the traffic flow 

that is prescribed for aircraft landing 
at, taxiing on, or taking off from, an 
airport. 

True airspeed 

means the airspeed of 

an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. 
True airspeed is equal to equivalent 
airspeed multiplied by (r0/r)

1

2

Type: 
(1) As used with respect to the cer-

tification, ratings, privileges, and limi-
tations of airmen, means a specific 
make and basic model of aircraft, in-
cluding modifications thereto that do 
not change its handling or flight char-
acteristics. Examples include: DC–7, 
1049, and F–27; and 

(2) As used with respect to the cer-

tification of aircraft, means those air-
craft which are similar in design. Ex-
amples include: DC–7 and DC–7C; 1049G 
and 1049H; and F–27 and F–27F. 

(3) As used with respect to the cer-

tification of aircraft engines means 
those engines which are similar in de-
sign. For example, JT8D and JT8D–7 
are engines of the same type, and 
JT9D–3A and JT9D–7 are engines of the 
same type. 

United States, 

in a geographical sense, 

means (1) the States, the District of 
Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the posses-
sions, including the territorial waters, 
and (2) the airspace of those areas. 

United States air carrier 

means a cit-

izen of the United States who under-
takes directly by lease, or other ar-
rangement, to engage in air transpor-
tation. 

Unmanned aircraft 

means an aircraft 

operated without the possibility of di-
rect human intervention from within 
or on the aircraft. 

VFR over-the-top, 

with respect to the 

operation of aircraft, means the oper-
ation of an aircraft over-the-top under 
VFR when it is not being operated on 
an IFR flight plan. 

Warning area. 

A warning area is air-

space of defined dimensions, extending 
from 3 nautical miles outward from the 
coast of the United States, that con-
tains activity that may be hazardous 
to nonparticipating aircraft. The pur-
pose of such warning areas is to warn 
nonparticipating pilots of the potential 
danger. A warning area may be located 

over domestic or international waters 
or both. 

Weight-shift-control aircraft 

means a 

powered aircraft with a framed piv-
oting wing and a fuselage controllable 
only in pitch and roll by the pilot’s 
ability to change the aircraft’s center 
of gravity with respect to the wing. 
Flight control of the aircraft depends 
on the wing’s ability to flexibly deform 
rather than the use of control surfaces. 

Winglet or tip fin 

means an out-of- 

plane surface extending from a lifting 
surface. The surface may or may not 
have control surfaces. 

[Doc. No. 1150, 27 FR 4588, May 15, 1962] 

E

DITORIAL

N

OTE

: For F

EDERAL

R

EGISTER

ci-

tations affecting § 1.1, see the List of CFR 
Sections Affected, which appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the printed volume 
and at www.fdsys.gov. 

§ 1.2

Abbreviations and symbols. 

In Subchapters A through K of this 

chapter: 

AFM 

means airplane flight manual. 

AGL 

means above ground level. 

ALS 

means approach light system. 

APU 

means auxiliary power unit. 

ASR 

means airport surveillance 

radar. 

ATC 

means air traffic control. 

ATS 

means Air Traffic Service. 

CAMP 

means continuous airworthi-

ness maintenance program. 

CAS 

means calibrated airspeed. 

CAT II 

means Category II. 

CHDO 

means an FAA Flight Stand-

ards certificate holding district office. 

CMP 

means configuration, mainte-

nance, and procedures. 

DH 

means decision height. 

DME 

means distance measuring 

equipment compatible with TACAN. 

EAS 

means equivalent airspeed. 

EFVS 

means enhanced flight vision 

system. 

Equi-Time Point 

means a point on the 

route of flight where the flight time, 
considering wind, to each of two se-
lected airports is equal. 

ETOPS 

means extended operations. 

EWIS

, as defined by § 25.1701 of this 

chapter, means electrical wiring inter-
connection system. 

FAA 

means Federal Aviation Admin-

istration. 

FFS 

means full flight simulator. 

FM 

means fan marker. 

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