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20 

14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 1.3 

V

H

means maximum speed in level 

flight with maximum continuous 
power. 

V

LE

means maximum landing gear 

extended speed. 

V

LO

means maximum landing gear 

operating speed. 

V

LOF

means lift-off speed. 

V

MC

means minimum control speed 

with the critical engine inoperative. 

V

MO

/M

MO

means maximum operating 

limit speed. 

V

MU

means minimum unstick speed. 

V

NE

means never-exceed speed. 

V

NO

means maximum structural 

cruising speed. 

V

R

means rotation speed. 

V

REF

means reference landing speed. 

V

S

means the stalling speed or the 

minimum steady flight speed at which 
the airplane is controllable. 

V

S0

means the stalling speed or the 

minimum steady flight speed in the 
landing configuration. 

V

S1

means the stalling speed or the 

minimum steady flight speed obtained 
in a specific configuration. 

V

SR

means reference stall speed. 

V

SRO

means reference stall speed in 

the landing configuration. 

V

SR1

means reference stall speed in a 

specific configuration. 

V

SW

means speed at which onset of 

natural or artificial stall warning oc-
curs. 

V

TOSS

means takeoff safety speed for 

Category A rotorcraft. 

V

X

means speed for best angle of 

climb. 

V

Y

means speed for best rate of 

climb. 

V

1

means the maximum speed in the 

takeoff at which the pilot must take 
the first action (e.g., apply brakes, re-
duce thrust, deploy speed brakes) to 
stop the airplane within the accelerate- 
stop distance. V

1

also means the min-

imum speed in the takeoff, following a 
failure of the critical engine at V

EF

, at 

which the pilot can continue the take-
off and achieve the required height 
above the takeoff surface within the 
takeoff distance. 

V

2

means takeoff safety speed. 

V

2min

means minimum takeoff safety 

speed. 

VFR

means visual flight rules. 

VGSI  means visual glide slope indi-

cator. 

VHF

means very high frequency. 

VOR

means very high frequency om-

nirange station. 

VORTAC

means collocated VOR and 

TACAN. 

[Doc. No. 1150, 27 FR 4590, May 15, 1962] 

E

DITORIAL

N

OTE

: For F

EDERAL

R

EGISTER

ci-

tations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR 
Sections Affected, which appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the printed volume 
and at www.fdsys.gov. 

§ 1.3

Rules of construction. 

(a) In Subchapters A through K of 

this chapter, unless the context re-
quires otherwise: 

(1) Words importing the singular in-

clude the plural; 

(2) Words importing the plural in-

clude the singular; and 

(3) Words importing the masculine 

gender include the feminine. 

(b) In Subchapters A through K of 

this chapter, the word: 

(1)  Shall  is used in an imperative 

sense; 

(2)  May  is used in a permissive sense 

to state authority or permission to do 
the act prescribed, and the words ‘‘no 
person may * * *’’ or ‘‘a person may 
not * * *’’ mean that no person is re-
quired, authorized, or permitted to do 
the act prescribed; and 

(3)  Includes  means ‘‘includes but is 

not limited to’’. 

[Doc. No. 1150, 27 FR 4590, May 15, 1962, as 
amended by Amdt. 1–10, 31 FR 5055, Mar. 29, 
1966] 

PART 3—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

Sec. 
3.1

Applicability. 

3.5

Statements about products, parts, appli-

ances and materials. 

A

UTHORITY

: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 

and 44704. 

S

OURCE

: 70 FR 54832, Sept. 16, 2005, unless 

otherwise noted. 

§ 3.1

Applicability. 

(a) This part applies to any person 

who makes a record regarding: 

(1) A type-certificated product, or 
(2) A product, part, appliance or ma-

terial that may be used on a type-cer-
tificated product. 

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