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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 1.1 

issued by the Administrator or other 
appropriate authority. 

Ceiling  means the height above the 

earth’s surface of the lowest layer of 
clouds or obscuring phenomena that is 
reported as ‘‘broken’’, ‘‘overcast’’, or 
‘‘obscuration’’, and not classified as 
‘‘thin’’ or ‘‘partial’’. 

Civil aircraft means aircraft other 

than public aircraft. 

Class: 
(1) As used with respect to the cer-

tification, ratings, privileges, and limi-
tations of airmen, means a classifica-
tion of aircraft within a category hav-
ing similar operating characteristics. 
Examples include: single engine; multi-
engine; land; water; gyroplane; heli-
copter; airship; and free balloon; and 

(2) As used with respect to the cer-

tification of aircraft, means a broad 
grouping of aircraft having similar 
characteristics of propulsion, flight, or 
landing. Examples include: airplane; 
rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; 
and seaplane. 

Clearway means: 
(1) For turbine engine powered air-

planes certificated after August 29, 
1959, an area beyond the runway, not 
less than 500 feet wide, centrally lo-
cated about the extended centerline of 
the runway, and under the control of 
the airport authorities. The clearway 
is expressed in terms of a clearway 
plane, extending from the end of the 
runway with an upward slope not ex-
ceeding 1.25 percent, above which no 
object nor any terrain protrudes. How-
ever, threshold lights may protrude 
above the plane if their height above 
the end of the runway is 26 inches or 
less and if they are located to each side 
of the runway. 

(2) For turbine engine powered air-

planes certificated after September 30, 
1958, but before August 30, 1959, an area 
beyond the takeoff runway extending 
no less than 300 feet on either side of 
the extended centerline of the runway, 
at an elevation no higher than the ele-
vation of the end of the runway, clear 
of all fixed obstacles, and under the 
control of the airport authorities. 

Climbout speed, with respect to rotor-

craft, means a referenced airspeed 
which results in a flight path clear of 
the height-velocity envelope during 
initial climbout. 

Commercial operator means a person 

who, for compensation or hire, engages 
in the carriage by aircraft in air com-
merce of persons or property, other 
than as an air carrier or foreign air 
carrier or under the authority of Part 
375 of this title. Where it is doubtful 
that an operation is for ‘‘compensation 
or hire’’, the test applied is whether 
the carriage by air is merely incidental 
to the person’s other business or is, in 
itself, a major enterprise for profit. 

Configuration, Maintenance, and Pro-

cedures (CMP) document means a docu-
ment approved by the FAA that con-
tains minimum configuration, oper-
ating, and maintenance requirements, 
hardware life-limits, and Master Min-
imum Equipment List (MMEL) con-
straints necessary for an airplane-en-
gine combination to meet ETOPS type 
design approval requirements. 

Consensus standard means, for the 

purpose of certificating light-sport air-
craft, an industry-developed consensus 
standard that applies to aircraft de-
sign, production, and airworthiness. It 
includes, but is not limited to, stand-
ards for aircraft design and perform-
ance, required equipment, manufac-
turer quality assurance systems, pro-
duction acceptance test procedures, op-
erating instructions, maintenance and 
inspection procedures, identification 
and recording of major repairs and 
major alterations, and continued air-
worthiness. 

Controlled airspace means an airspace 

of defined dimensions within which air 
traffic control service is provided to 
IFR flights and to VFR flights in ac-
cordance with the airspace classifica-
tion. 

N

OTE

: Controlled airspace is a generic term 

that covers Class A, Class B, Class C, Class 
D, and Class E airspace. 

Controlled Firing Area. A controlled 

firing area is established to contain ac-
tivities, which if not conducted in a 
controlled environment, would be haz-
ardous to nonparticipating aircraft. 

Crewmember  means a person assigned 

to perform duty in an aircraft during 
flight time. 

Critical altitude means the maximum 

altitude at which, in standard atmos-
phere, it is possible to maintain, at a 
specified rotational speed, a specified 
power or a specified manifold pressure. 

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