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12 

14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 1.1 

under standard atmospheric conditions 
at sea level. 

(3) A maximum never-exceed speed 

(V

NE

) of not more than 120 knots CAS 

for a glider. 

(4) A maximum stalling speed or min-

imum steady flight speed without the 
use of lift-enhancing devices (V

S1

) of 

not more than 45 knots CAS at the air-
craft’s maximum certificated takeoff 
weight and most critical center of 
gravity. 

(5) A maximum seating capacity of 

no more than two persons, including 
the pilot. 

(6) A single, reciprocating engine, if 

powered. 

(7) A fixed or ground-adjustable pro-

peller if a powered aircraft other than 
a powered glider. 

(8) A fixed or feathering propeller 

system if a powered glider. 

(9) A fixed-pitch, semi-rigid, tee-

tering, two-blade rotor system, if a gy-
roplane. 

(10) A nonpressurized cabin, if 

equipped with a cabin. 

(11) Fixed landing gear, except for an 

aircraft intended for operation on 
water or a glider. 

(12) Fixed or retractable landing 

gear, or a hull, for an aircraft intended 
for operation on water. 

(13) Fixed or retractable landing gear 

for a glider. 

Lighter-than-air aircraft means air-

craft that can rise and remain sus-
pended by using contained gas weigh-
ing less than the air that is displaced 
by the gas. 

Load factor means the ratio of a spec-

ified load to the total weight of the air-
craft. The specified load is expressed in 
terms of any of the following: aero-
dynamic forces, inertia forces, or 
ground or water reactions. 

Long-range communication system 

(LRCS).  A system that uses satellite 
relay, data link, high frequency, or an-
other approved communication system 
which extends beyond line of sight. 

Long-range navigation system (LRNS). 

An electronic navigation unit that is 
approved for use under instrument 
flight rules as a primary means of navi-
gation, and has at least one source of 
navigational input, such as inertial 
navigation system or global posi-
tioning system. 

Mach number means the ratio of true 

airspeed to the speed of sound. 

Main rotor means the rotor that sup-

plies the principal lift to a rotorcraft. 

Maintenance  means inspection, over-

haul, repair, preservation, and the re-
placement of parts, but excludes pre-
ventive maintenance. 

Major alteration means an alteration 

not listed in the aircraft, aircraft en-
gine, or propeller specifications— 

(1) That might appreciably affect 

weight, balance, structural strength, 
performance, powerplant operation, 
flight characteristics, or other quali-
ties affecting airworthiness; or 

(2) That is not done according to ac-

cepted practices or cannot be done by 
elementary operations. 

Major repair means a repair: 
(1) That, if improperly done, might 

appreciably affect weight, balance, 
structural strength, performance, pow-
erplant operation, flight characteris-
tics, or other qualities affecting air-
worthiness; or 

(2) That is not done according to ac-

cepted practices or cannot be done by 
elementary operations. 

Manifold pressure means absolute 

pressure as measured at the appro-
priate point in the induction system 
and usually expressed in inches of mer-
cury. 

Maximum engine overtorque, as it ap-

plies to turbopropeller and turboshaft 
engines incorporating free power tur-
bines for all ratings except one engine 
inoperative (OEI) ratings of two min-
utes or less, means the maximum 
torque of the free power turbine rotor 
assembly, the inadvertent occurrence 
of which, for periods of up to 20 sec-
onds, will not require rejection of the 
engine from service, or any mainte-
nance action other than to correct the 
cause.Maximum speed for stability char-
acteristics, V

FC

/M

FC

means a speed that 

may not be less than a speed midway 
between maximum operating limit 
speed (V

MO

/M

MO

) and demonstrated 

flight diving speed (V

DF

/M

DF

), except 

that, for altitudes where the Mach 
number is the limiting factor, M

FC

need 

not exceed the Mach number at which 
effective speed warning occurs. 

Medical certificate means acceptable 

evidence of physical fitness on a form 
prescribed by the Administrator. 

VerDate Sep<11>2014 

11:00 Mar 08, 2018

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