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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 1.1 

Military operations area. A military 

operations area (MOA) is airspace es-
tablished outside Class A airspace to 
separate or segregate certain nonhaz-
ardous military activities from IFR 
Traffic and to identify for VFR traffic 
where theses activities are conducted. 

Minimum descent altitude (MDA) is the 

lowest altitude specified in an instru-
ment approach procedure, expressed in 
feet above mean sea level, to which de-
scent is authorized on final approach or 
during circle-to-land maneuvering 
until the pilot sees the required visual 
references for the heliport or runway of 
intended landing. 

Minor alteration means an alteration 

other than a major alteration. 

Minor repair means a repair other 

than a major repair. 

Model aircraft means an unmanned 

aircraft that is: 

(1) Capable of sustained flight in the 


(2) Flown within visual line of sight 

of the person operating the aircraft; 

(3) Flown for hobby or recreational 


National defense airspace means air-

space established by a regulation pre-
scribed, or an order issued under, 49 
U.S.C. 40103(b)(3). 

Navigable airspace means airspace at 

and above the minimum flight alti-
tudes prescribed by or under this chap-
ter, including airspace needed for safe 
takeoff and landing. 

Night  means the time between the 

end of evening civil twilight and the 
beginning of morning civil twilight, as 
published in the Air Almanac, con-
verted to local time. 

Nonprecision approach procedure 

means a standard instrument approach 
procedure in which no electronic glide 
slope is provided. 

Operate,  with respect to aircraft, 

means use, cause to use or authorize to 
use aircraft, for the purpose (except as 
provided in § 91.13 of this chapter) of air 
navigation including the piloting of 
aircraft, with or without the right of 
legal control (as owner, lessee, or oth-

Operational control, with respect to a 

flight, means the exercise of authority 
over initiating, conducting or termi-
nating a flight. 

Overseas air commerce means the car-

riage by aircraft of persons or property 
for compensation or hire, or the car-
riage of mail by aircraft, or the oper-
ation or navigation of aircraft in the 
conduct or furtherance of a business or 
vocation, in commerce between a place 
in any State of the United States, or 
the District of Columbia, and any place 
in a territory or possession of the 
United States; or between a place in a 
territory or possession of the United 
States, and a place in any other terri-
tory or possession of the United States. 

Overseas air transportation means the 

carriage by aircraft of persons or prop-
erty as a common carrier for com-
pensation or hire, or the carriage of 
mail by aircraft, in commerce: 

(1) Between a place in a State or the 

District of Columbia and a place in a 
possession of the United States; or 

(2) Between a place in a possession of 

the United States and a place in an-
other possession of the United States; 
whether that commerce moves wholly 
by aircraft or partly by aircraft and 
partly by other forms of transpor-

Over-the-top means above the layer of 

clouds or other obscuring phenomena 
forming the ceiling. 

Parachute  means a device used or in-

tended to be used to retard the fall of 
a body or object through the air. 

Person  means an individual, firm, 

partnership, corporation, company, as-
sociation, joint-stock association, or 
governmental entity. It includes a 
trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar 
representative of any of them. 

Pilotage  means navigation by visual 

reference to landmarks. 

Pilot in command means the person 


(1) Has final authority and responsi-

bility for the operation and safety of 
the flight; 

(2) Has been designated as pilot in 

command before or during the flight; 

(3) Holds the appropriate category, 

class, and type rating, if appropriate, 
for the conduct of the flight. 

Pitch setting means the propeller 

blade setting as determined by the 
blade angle measured in a manner, and 
at a radius, specified by the instruction 
manual for the propeller. 

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