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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 13.222 

on an earlier date than the date speci-
fied in the notice of hearing. 

§ 13.222

Evidence. 

(a)  General.  A party is entitled to 

present the party’s case or defense by 
oral, documentary, or demonstrative 
evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, 
and to conduct any cross-examination 
that may be required for a full and true 
disclosure of the facts. 

(b)  Admissibility.  A party may intro-

duce any oral, documentary, or demon-
strative evidence in support of the par-
ty’s case or defense. The administra-
tive law judge shall admit any oral, 
documentary, or demonstrative evi-
dence introduced by a party but shall 
exclude irrelevant, immaterial, or un-
duly repetitious evidence. 

(c)  Hearsay evidence. Hearsay evi-

dence is admissible in proceedings gov-
erned by this subpart. The fact that 
evidence submitted by a party is hear-
say goes only to the weight of the evi-
dence and does not affect its admissi-
bility. 

§ 13.223

Standard of proof. 

The administrative law judge shall 

issue an initial decision or shall rule in 
a party’s favor only if the decision or 
ruling is supported by, and in accord-
ance with, the reliable, probative, and 
substantial evidence contained in the 
record. In order to prevail, the party 
with the burden of proof shall prove 
the party’s case or defense by a prepon-
derance of reliable, probative, and sub-
stantial evidence. 

§ 13.224

Burden of proof. 

(a) Except in the case of an affirma-

tive defense, the burden of proof is on 
the agency. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided by 

statute or rule, the proponent of a mo-
tion, request, or order has the burden 
of proof. 

(c) A party who has asserted an af-

firmative defense has the burden of 
proving the affirmative defense. 

§ 13.225

Offer of proof. 

A party whose evidence has been ex-

cluded by a ruling of the administra-
tive law judge may offer the evidence 
for the record on appeal. 

§ 13.226

Public disclosure of evidence. 

(a) The administrative law judge may 

order that any information contained 
in the record be withheld from public 
disclosure. Any person may object to 
disclosure of information in the record 
by filing a written motion to withhold 
specific information with the adminis-
trative law judge and serving a copy of 
the motion on each party. The party 
shall state the specific grounds for non-
disclosure in the motion. 

(b) The administrative law judge 

shall grant the motion to withhold in-
formation in the record if, based on the 
motion and any response to the mo-
tion, the administrative law judge de-
termines that disclosure would be det-
rimental to aviation safety, disclosure 
would not be in the public interest, or 
that the information is not otherwise 
required to be made available to the 
public. 

§ 13.227

Expert or opinion witnesses. 

An employee of the agency may not 

be called as an expert or opinion wit-
ness, for any party other than the 
FAA, in any proceeding governed by 
this subpart. An employee of a respond-
ent may not be called by an agency at-
torney as an expert or opinion witness 
for the FAA in any proceeding gov-
erned by this subpart to which the re-
spondent is a party. 

§ 13.228

Subpoenas. 

(a) Request for subpoena. A party may 

obtain a subpoena to compel the at-
tendance of a witness at a deposition or 
hearing or to require the production of 
documents or tangible items from the 
hearing docket clerk. The hearing 
docket clerk shall deliver the sub-
poena, signed by the hearing docket 
clerk or an administrative law judge 
but otherwise in blank, to the party. 
The party shall complete the subpoena, 
stating the title of the action and the 
date and time for the witness’ attend-
ance or production of documents or 
items. The party who obtained the sub-
poena shall serve the subpoena on the 
witness. 

(b)  Motion to quash or modify the sub-

poena.  A party, or any person upon 
whom a subpoena has been served, may 
file a motion to quash or modify the 
subpoena with the administrative law 

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