14CFR vol1 part27 - 87 pages

Page 1 - pdf   html   txt
12 months after initial approval of the
Section 26.49
Subpart A - General
27.1 Applicability.
27.2 Special retroactive requirements.
Subpart B - Flight
(a) Compliance plan. Except for applicants for type certific...
2008, each person identified in SectionSection 26.43,
26.45, and 26.47, must submit a compliance plan consisting o...
26.45(e), and 26.47(e), as applicable.
(b) Compliance dates for compliance
2008.
(c) Compliance Plan Implementation.
PART 27 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS:
27.21 Proof of compliance.
27.25 Weight limits.
27.27 Center of gravity limits.
27.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
27.31 Removable ballast.
27.33 Main rotor speed and pitch limits.
27.45 General.
...
Page 2 - pdf   html   txt
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
27.337 Limit maneuvering load factor.
27.339 Resultant limit maneuvering loads.
27.341 Gust loads.
27.351 Yawing conditions.
27.361 Engine torque.
27.619
27.621
27.623
27.625
27.629
27.391
27.395
27.397
27.399
27.411
27.427
27.653 Pressure venting and drainage of
27.659 Mass balance.
27.661 Rotor blade clearance.
27.663 Ground resonance prevention means.
...
Page 3 - pdf   html   txt
27.863
27.865
27.1091
27.1093
27.1121
27.1123
27.871
27.873
Subpart E - Powerplant
27.1141 Powerplant controls: general.
27.1143 Engine controls.
27.1145 Ignition switches.
27.1147 Mixture controls.
27.1151 Rotor brake controls.
27.1163 Powerplant accessories.
27.901
27.903
27.907
27.917 Design.
27.921 Rotor brake.
27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.
...
Page 4 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
27.1387 Position light system dihedral angles.
27.1389 Position light distribution and intensities.
27.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forwa...
27.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical
27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping
27.1397 Color specifications.
27.1399 Riding light.
27.1401 Anticollision light system.
44701-44702, 44704.
24, 1964, unless otherwise noted.
27.1411 General.
27.1413 Safety belts.
27.1415 Ditching equipment.
27.1419 Ice protection.
27.1435 Hydraulic systems.
27.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
27.1459 Flight data recorders.
27.1461 Equipment containing high energy
Subpart G - Operating Limitations and
...
Page 5 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.25
(i) The date the inspection acceptance records, or equivalen...
(b) For rotorcraft with a certification
1999 - 
(i) The number of passenger seats is
18, 1999.
1999]
Subpart B - Flight
Section 27.21 Proof of compliance.
(a) By tests upon a rotorcraft of the
(b) By systematic investigation of
1984]
Section 27.25 Weight limits.
(a) Maximum weight. The maximum
(i) The highest weight selected by the
(i) The empty weight determined
(b) Minimum weight. The minimum
(i) The empty weight determined
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 6 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.27
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(i) The lowest weight selected by the
(c) Total weight with jettisonable external load. A total we...
Section 27.27
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
Section 27.31
1976; Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2324, Jan. 16, 1978;
27-44, 73 FR 10998, Feb. 29, 2008; 73 FR 33876,
Section 27.33 Main rotor speed and pitch limits.
(a) The extremes selected by the applicant;
(b) The extremes within which the
(c) The extremes within which compliance with the applicable...
Section 27.29 Empty
(a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity mus...
(i) Oil;
(b) The condition of the rotorcraft at
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978]
...
Page 7 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.45
(b) Normal main rotor high pitch limits
(c) Normal main rotor low pitch limits
(d) Emergency high pitch. If the main
(e) Main rotor low speed warning for
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1968; Amdt. 27-14, 43 FR 2324, Jan. 16, 1978]
Section 27.45 General.
(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the
(b) The performance must correspond
(c) The available power must correspond to engine power, not...
(d) For reciprocating engine-powered
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 8 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.49
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(e) For turbine engine-powered rotorcraft, the performance, ...
(f) For turbine-engine-powered rotorcraft, a means must be p...
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1984]
Section 27.49 Performance at minimum operating speed.
(a) For helicopters - 
(i) Takeoff power;
(i) For reciprocating engine powered
(b) For rotorcraft other than helicopters, the steady rate o...
Section 27.51 Takeoff.
r.p.m. at the most critical center of
(a) May not require exceptional piloting skill or exceptiona...
(b) Must be made in such a manner
Section 27.65 Climb: all engines operating.
(a) For rotorcraft other than helicopters - 
(i) With maximum continuous power
(i) At least 1:10 if the horizontal distance required to tak...
(b) Each helicopter must meet the
...
Page 9 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.87
(i) For standard sea level conditions;
(i) At the climb speed selected by the
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978; Amdt. 27-33, 61 FR 21907, May 10, 1996]
Section 27.67 Climb: one engine inoperative.
(a) Maximum weight;
(b) The critical engine inoperative
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1988]
Section 27.71 Autorotation performance.
(a) Maximum weight; and
(b) Rotor speed(s) selected by the applicant.
Section 27.75
(a) The rotorcraft must be able to be
(i) Power off, for single engine rotorcraft and entered from...
(b) Multiengine rotorcraft must be
1978; Amdt. 27-44, 73 FR 10999, Feb. 29, 2008]
Section 27.87
...
Page 10 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.141
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) The applicable power failure conditions are - 
7000 feet density altitude or the maximum altitude capabilit...
1968; Amdt. 27-11, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976;
27-21, 49 FR 44433, Nov. 6, 1984]
1978; Amdt. 27-21, 49 FR 44433, Nov. 6, 1984;
Section 27.143 Controllability and maneuverability.
(c) Have any additional characteristic required for night or...
Section 27.141 General.
(a) Except as specifically required in
(b) Be able to maintain any required
(a) The rotorcraft must be safely controllable and maneuvera...
(i) Takeoff;
(v) Autorotation;
(b) The margin of cyclic control must
(c) Wind velocities from zero to at
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 11 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.173
(i) Critical Weight;
(i) Weight selected by the applicant;
(d) Wind velocities from zero to at
(e) The rotorcraft, after (1) failure of
(i) For the cruise condition, one second, or normal pilot re...
(f) For helicopters for which a VNE
Section 27.1505(c), compliance must be demonstrated with the...
r.p.m.:
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1968; Amdt. 27-14, 43 FR 2325, Jan. 16, 1978;
27-44, 73 FR 10999, Feb. 29, 2008]
Section 27.151
(a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional,
(b) Control system forces and free
Section 27.161
(a) Must trim any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collecti...
(b) May not introduce any undesirable discontinuities in con...
1984]
Section 27.171
...
Page 12 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.175
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) Throughout the full range of altitude for which certific...
(d), the slope of the control position
2008]
Section 27.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stabilit...
(a) Climb. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in th...
(b) Cruise. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in t...
0.8 VNE + 10 kt or, if VH is less than 0.8
(c) VNE. Static longitudinal stability
10 kt.
(d) Autorotation. Static longitudinal
(i) Critical weight;
(i) Critical weight;
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1968; Amdt. 27-11, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976;
27-21, 49 FR 44433, Nov. 6, 1984; Amdt. 27-34, 62
10999, Feb. 29, 2008]
Section 27.177
(a) The directional controls must operate in such a manner t...
...
Page 13 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.307
(c) During the maneuver specified in
Section 27.231
Section 27.235
Section 27.239
Section 27.241
Section 27.251
Subpart C - Strength Requirements
Section 27.301
(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit lo...
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the
(c) If deflections under load would
Section 27.303
Section 27.305
(a) The structure must be able to
(b) The structure must be able to
Section 27.307
(a) Compliance with the strength and
(b) Proof of compliance with the
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 14 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.309
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
1425)
1968; Amdt. 27-26, 55 FR 7999, Mar. 6, 1990]
Section 27.309
(a) The design maximum weight.
(b) The main rotor r.p.m. ranges
(c) The maximum forward speeds for
(d) The maximum rearward and sideward flight speeds.
(e) The center of gravity limits corresponding to the limita...
(f) The rotational speed ratios between each powerplant and ...
(g) The positive and negative limit
(a) A limit maneuvering load factor
(b) Any positive limit maneuvering
Section 27.339 Resultant limit maneuvering
(a) The flight load factor must be assumed to act normal to ...
(b) Compliance with the flight load
1976]
1976]
Section 27.341
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 15 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.395
Section 27.351
(a) Each rotorcraft must be designed
(b) To produce the load required in
(c) To produce the load required in
1997]
Section 27.361
(a) For turbine engines, the limit
(b) For reciprocating engines, the
Section 27.391 General.
1997]
Section 27.395 Control system.
(a) The part of each control system
(b) Each primary control system, including its supporting st...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 16 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.397
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
1990]
Section 27.397
(a) Except as provided in paragraph
(b) of this section, the limit pilot
(b) For flap, tab, stabilizer, rotor
50 pounds nor more than 100 pounds for
2001]
Section 27.399
0.75 times those obtained under Section 27.395
(a) In opposition; and
(b) In the same direction.
Section 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor
(a) It must be impossible for the tail
(b) If a tail rotor guard is required to
Section 27.427
(a) Horizontal tail surfaces and their
(b) To meet the design criteria of
(c) For empennage arrangements
21, 1990]
...
Page 17 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.485
(b) Critical centers of gravity. The critical centers of gra...
Section 27.473 Ground loading
(a) For specified landing conditions,
(b) Unless otherwise prescribed, for
Section 27.725.
Section 27.475
Section 27.477
Section 27.479
(a) Attitudes. Under each of the loading conditions prescrib...
(b) of this section, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in each...
(b) Loading conditions. The rotorcraft
Section 27.471.
40:60.
(c) Pitching moments. Pitching moments are assumed to be res...
Section 27.481 Tail-down landing conditions.
(a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in
(b) In this attitude, ground loads are
Section 27.483 One-wheel landing conditions.
(a) The vertical load must be the
(b) The unbalanced external loads
...
Page 18 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.493
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) The rotorcraft must be designed
(i) For the aft wheels, the side loads
Section 27.493
(a) The limit vertical load must be
Section 27.479(a)(1); and
Section 27.479(a)(2); and
(b) The structure must be designed to
Section 27.497 Ground loading conditions:
(a) General. Rotorcraft with landing
(b) Level landing attitude with only the
(c) Level landing attitude with all
(b) of this section.
(d) Maximum nose-up attitude with
(e) Level landing attitude with only one
(f) Side loads in the level landing attitude. In the attitud...
(b) and (c) of this section. In this condition, the side loa...
(i) For the forward wheels, 0.8 times
(f)(1) of this section must be applied - 
(i) At the ground contact point with
...
Page 19 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.501
(g) Braked roll conditions in the level
(i) 1.0, for the attitude specified in
(i) 0.8 times the vertical load; and
(h) Rear wheel turning loads in the
(h)(1) of this section must be applied to
(i) Through the axle, if there is a
(i) Taxiing condition. The rotorcraft
Section 27.501 Ground loading conditions:
(a) General. Rotorcraft with landing
27.475.
(i) A drop height of 1.5 times that
(i) The gear in its most critically deflected position for t...
(b) Vertical reactions in the level landing attitude. In the...
(c) Drag reactions in the level landing
(d) Sideloads in the level landing attitude. In the level at...
(i) Equal to the vertical loads obtained in the condition sp...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 20 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.505
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(i) Inward acting sideloads; and
(e) One-skid landing loads in the level
(f) Special conditions. In addition to
(b) and (c) of this section, the rotorcraft must be designed...
(i) Equal to 1.33 times the maximum
(i) Applied only to the skid tube and
1968; Amdt. 27-26, 55 FR 8000, Mar. 6, 1990]
Section 27.505
(a) Up-load conditions in which - 
(b) A side-load condition in which a
(c) A torque-load condition in which
Section 27.521
Section 27.473(b) or assumed to be equal to
(a) Up-load conditions in which - 
(b) A side-load condition in which - 
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 21 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.561
Section 27.547
(a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blade...
(b) [Reserved]
(c) The main rotor structure must be
27.341:
(d) The main rotor structure must be
(e) The main rotor structure must be
(i) The maximum torque likely to be
1425)
1968]
Section 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and
(a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and
(b) Each structure must be designed
27.493, 27.497, 27.501, 27.505, and 27.521;
(d)(2) and (e).
(c) Auxiliary rotor thrust, and the
(d) Each engine mount and adjacent
1425)
1968]
Section 27.561 General.
...
Page 22 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.562
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(d) Any fuselage structure in the area
(i) Upward - 1.5g.
1989; Amdt. 27-30, 59 FR 50386, Oct. 3, 1994;
Section 27.562 Emergency landing dynamic
(a) The rotorcraft, although it may
(b) Each seat type design or other
170-pound
10Section lateral roll, with the directions optional, to acc...
(c) Compliance with the following
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 23 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.571
2.5
(d) An alternate approach that
Section 27.563 Structural
(a) Forward speed landing conditions.
Section 27.571 Fatigue evaluation of flight
(a) General. Each portion of the flight
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
(b) Auxiliary or emergency float conditions - (1) Floats fix...
Section 27.801(d). Maximum roll and pitch angles determined ...
Section 27.801(d) may be used, if significant, to
Page 24 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.573
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(i) Loads or stresses in all critical
(a)(3) of this section.
(b) Fatigue tolerance evaluation. It
(c) Replacement time evaluation. it
(d) Fail-safe evaluation. The following
(e) Combination of replacement time
775, and 778, (49 U.S.C. 1354(a), 1421, 1423, 1424,
1977; Amdt. 27-18, 45 FR 60177, Sept. 11, 1980;
Section 27.573 Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Co...
(a) Each applicant must evaluate the
(b) The methodology used to establish compliance with this s...
(c) Definitions:
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 25 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.573
(d) Damage Tolerance Evaluation:
(i) The identification of all PSEs;
(v) An assessment of the residual
(i) Replacement times for PSEs must
(d)(1)(iv) of this section;
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 26 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.601
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(e) Fatigue Evaluation: If an applicant establishes that the...
(d) of this section is impractical within
74663, Dec. 1, 2011]
Section 27.603
Section 27.601 Design.
(a) The rotorcraft may have no design features or details th...
(b) The suitability of each questionable design detail and p...
Section 27.602 Critical parts.
(a) Critical part. A critical part is a
(a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests;
(b) Meet approved specifications that
(c) Take into account the effects of
1976; Amdt. 27-16, 43 FR 50599, Oct. 30, 1978]
Section 27.605
Subpart D - Design and
(b) If the type design includes crtical
(a) The methods of fabrication used
(b) Each new aircraft fabrication
1421, 1423, 1424 and 1425); sec. 6(c) of the Dept.
...
Page 27 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.607
Section 27.613
(a) Each removable bolt, screw, nut,
(b) No self-locking nut may be used
1999; Amdt. 27-46, 76 FR 33135, June 8, 2011]
Section 27.611
Section 27.609
(a) Recurring inspection;
(b) Adjustment for proper alignment
(c) Lubrication.
(a) Be suitably protected against deterioration or loss of s...
(b) Have provisions for ventilation
Section 27.610 Lightning and
(a) The rotorcraft must be protected
(b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) o...
(c) For nonmetallic components,
(d) The electrical bonding and protection against lightning ...
Section 27.613 Material strength properties
(a) Material strength properties must
(b) Design values must be chosen to
(e) of this section, compliance with
...
Page 28 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.619
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(d) Design values may be those contained in the following pu...
(e) Other design values may be used if
1978; Amdt. 27-26, 55 FR 8000, Mar. 6, 1990]
Section 27.619
(a) The special factors prescribed in
(i) Uncertainties in manufacturing
(b) For each part to which SectionSection 27.621
Section 27.621 Casting factors.
(a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified i...
(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The
(c) and (d) of this section - 
(c) Critical castings. For each casting
(i) Have a casting factor of not less
(i) The strength requirements of
Section 27.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a castin...
Section 27.305 at a load of 1.15 times the limit
(d) Noncritical castings. For each casting other than those ...
(d)(2) and (3) of this section, the casting
2.0 or greater ...............
...
Page 29 - pdf   html   txt
1.25 through 1.50 ........
Section 27.659
100 percent visual, and magnetic
100 percent visual, and magnetic
(i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be
1.50 -  and tested under paragraph (c)(2)
1997]
Section 27.623 Bearing factors.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph
(b) of this section, each part that has
(b) No bearing factor need be used on
Section 27.625 Fitting factors.
(a) For each fitting whose strength is
(b) No fitting factor need be used - 
(c) For each integral fitting, the part
(d) Each seat, berth, litter, safety
Section 27.561(b)(3) multiplied by a fitting factor of 1.33.
1998]
Section 27.629
1990]
Section 27.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades...
...
Page 30 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.661
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) The structural integrity of the
Section 27.661 Rotor blade clearance.
Section 27.663 Ground resonance prevention
(a) The reliability of the means for
(b) The probable range of variations,
1990]
Section 27.671 General.
(a) Each control and control system
(b) Each element of each flight control system must be desig...
Section 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-...
(a) A warning which is clearly distinguishable to the pilot ...
(b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of an...
(c) It must be shown that after any
47594, Dec. 6, 1984]
Section 27.673
Section 27.674
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 31 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.675
Section 27.685
Section 27.683
(a) Each control system must have
(b) Each stop must be located in the
(c) Each stop must be able to withstand the loads correspond...
(d) For each main rotor blade - 
1978]
Section 27.679
(a) Give unmistakable warning to the
(b) Prevent the lock from engaging in
Section 27.681
(a) Compliance with the limit load
(b) Compliance must be shown (by
(a) Jamming;
(b) Excessive friction; and
(c) Excessive deflection.
Section 27.685
(a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to p...
(b) There must be means in the cockpit to prevent the entry ...
(c) There must be means to prevent
...
Page 32 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.687
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
202-741-6030,
(e) Control system joints subject to
(f) For control system joints, the
1976; Amdt. 27-26, 55 FR 8001, Mar. 6, 1990; 69
Section 27.687
(a) Each control system spring device
(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of
Section 27.691 Autorotation control mechanism.
Section 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system...
(a) If a power boost or power-operated control system is use...
(b) Each alternate system may be a
(c) The failure of mechanical parts
Section 27.723
Section 27.725
(a) The drop height must be - 
(b) If considered, the rotor lift specified in Section 27.47...
(c) Each landing gear unit must be
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 33 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.729
(d) When an effective mass is used in
0.25g forward.
(a) The drop height must be 1.5 times
(b) Rotor lift, where considered in a
1990]
Section 27.729 Retracting mechanism.
(a) Loads. The landing gear, retracting mechansim, wheel-wel...
(b) Landing gear lock. A positive
(c) Emergency operation. When other
(d) Operation tests. The proper functioning of the retractin...
(e) Position indicator. There must be a
(f) Control. The location and operation of the retraction co...
27.779.
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Section 27.727 Reserve
Section 27.725(b), may not exceed 1.5 times the
(c) The landing gear must withstand
Page 34 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.731
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(g) Landing gear warning. An aural or
Section 27.731 Wheels.
(a) Each landing gear wheel must be
(b) The maximum static load rating
(c) The maximum limit load rating of
Section 27.733 Tires.
(a) Each landing gear wheel must
(b) The maximum static load rating
(c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system...
1976]
Section 27.735 Brakes.
(a) Controllable by the pilot;
(b) Usable during power-off landings;
(c) Adequate to - 
10-degree slope on a dry, smooth pavement.
1984]
Section 27.737
Section 27.751
(a) For main floats, the buoyancy
...
Page 35 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.779
Section 27.755 Hulls.
Section 27.771 Pilot compartment.
(a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot ...
(b) If there is provision for a second
(c) The vibration and noise characteristics of cockpit appur...
Section 27.773 Pilot compartment view.
(a) Each pilot compartment must be
(b) If certification for night operation is requested, compl...
(c) A vision system with a transparent display surface locat...
48, 81 FR 90170, Dec. 13, 2016]
Section 27.775
Section 27.777
(a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent c...
(b) Located and arranged with respect to the pilots- seats s...
Section 27.779 Motion and effect of cockpit
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 36 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.783
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(a) Flight controls, including the collective pitch control,...
(b) Twist-grip engine power controls
(c) Normal landing gear controls
Section 27.783
(a) Each closed cabin must have at
(b) Each external door must be located where persons using i...
1990]
Section 27.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety
(a) Each seat, safety belt, harness,
Section 27.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in Sectio...
(b) Each occupant must be protected
(c) Each occupant-s seat must have a
(d) If seat backs do not have a firm
(e) Each projecting object that could
(f) Each seat and its supporting
Section 27.561(b) must be multiplied by a factor of 1.33 in ...
(i) Each seat to the structure; and
(g) When the safety belt and shoulder
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 37 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.801
(h) When a headrest is used, the headrest and its supporting...
(i) Each seating device system includes the device such as t...
(j) Each seating device system may
Section 27.562; otherwise, the system must remain intact and...
(k) For the purposes of this section, a
1989; Amdt. 27-35, 63 FR 43285, Aug. 12, 1998]
Section 27.787 Cargo and baggage compartments.
(a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be designed for ...
Section 27.561.
(b) There must be means to prevent
(c) Under the emergency landing conditions of Section 27.561...
(d) If cargo compartment lamps are
1976; Amdt. 27-27, 55 FR 38966, Sept. 21, 1990]
Section 27.801
(a) If certification with ditching provisions is requested, ...
27.1415.
(b) Each practicable design measure,
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 38 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.805
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(c) The probable behavior of the
(d) It must be shown that, under reasonably probable water c...
(e) Unless the effects of the collapse
Section 27.805
(a) For rotorcraft with passenger
(b) Each flight crew emergency exit
(c) Each flight crew emergency exit
Section 27.807 Emergency exits.
(a) Number and location. (1) There
(i) Be above the waterline; and
(b) Type and operation. Each emergency exit prescribed by pa...
(c) Tests. The proper functioning of
(d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certificatio...
Section 27.831 Ventilation.
(a) The ventilating system for the
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 39 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.859
(b) The concentration of carbon monoxide may not exceed one ...
Section 27.833 Heaters.
Section 27.853 Compartment interiors.
(a) The materials must be at least
(b) [Reserved]
(c) If smoking is to be prohibited,
(i) When illuminated, be legible to
1999]
Section 27.855 Cargo and baggage compartments.
(a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be constructed o...
(b) No compartment may contain any
Section 27.859 Heating systems.
(a) General. For each heating system
(b) Heat exchangers. Each heat exchanger must be - 
(c) Combustion heater fire protection.
27.1189, 27.1191, and be provided with - 
(i) Effective under conditions expected to prevail when drai...
(d) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 40 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.861
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(e) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be f...
(f) Heater control: General. There must
(g) Heater safety controls. For each
(i) The heat exchanger temperature
(i) Be independent of components
(h) Air intakes. Each combustion and
(i) Heater exhaust. Each heater exhaust system must meet the...
(j) Heater fuel systems. Each heater
(k) Drains. There must be means for
1988]
Section 27.861 Fire protection of structure,
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 41 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.865
Section 27.863 Flammable fluid fire protection.
(a) In each area where flammable
(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of
(c) If action by the flight crew is required to prevent or c...
(d) Each area where flammable fluids
Section 27.865 External loads.
(a) It must be shown by analysis,
30Section. However, the 30Section angle may be reduced to a ...
(b) The external load attaching
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 42 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.871
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(i) Be reliable, durable, and function
(c) For rotorcraft-load combinations
(i) Provides a dual actuation device
(d) The critically configured jettisonable external loads mu...
(e) A placard or marking must be installed next to the exter...
(f) The fatigue evaluation of Section 27.571
Section 27.571 of this part applies to the entire
1990; Amdt. 27-36, 64 FR 43019, Aug. 6, 1999]
Section 27.871 Leveling marks.
Section 27.873 Ballast provisions.
Subpart E - Powerplant
Section 27.901 Installation.
(a) For the purpose of this part, the
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 43 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.907
(b) For each powerplant installation - 
(c) The installation must comply
1968; Amdt. 27-12, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977;
Section 27.903 Engines.
(a) Engine type certification. Each engine must have an appr...
(b) Engine or drive system cooling fan
(i) The fan blades are contained in
Section 27.571 is conducted, it must be shown
(c) Turbine engine installation. For
(d) Restart capability: A means to restart any engine in fli...
1976; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34211, Sept. 2, 1988;
Section 27.907
(a) Each engine must be installed to
(b) The addition of the rotor and the
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 44 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.917
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(c) No part of the rotor drive system
Section 27.917 Design.
(a) Each rotor drive system must incorporate a unit for each...
(b) Each rotor drive system must be
(c) If a torque limiting device is used
(d) The rotor drive system includes
1976]
Section 27.921 Rotor brake.
Section 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism test...
(a) Each part tested as prescribed in
(b) Each rotor drive system and control mechanism must be te...
(c) A 60-hour part of the test prescribed in paragraph (b) o...
(d) A 30-hour or, for rotorcraft for
(e) A 10-hour part of the test prescribed in paragraph (b) o...
(i) Each run must consist of at least
21-2 minute OEI torque for 21-2 minutes.
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 45 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.927
(i) Immediately following a takeoff
(f) The parts of the test prescribed in
(g) At intervals of not more than five
(h) Under the operating conditions
500 complete cycles of control of each
(i) At least 200 start-up clutch engagements must be accompl...
(j) For multiengine rotorcraft for
30-minute OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 30-m...
(k) For multiengine rotorcraft for
1968; Amdt. 27-12, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977;
27-29, 59 FR 47767, Sept. 16, 1994]
Section 27.927 Additional tests.
(a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests...
(b) If turbine engine torque output to
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 46 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.931
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(i) The maximum torque used in
(c) It must be shown by tests that the
15 minutes after the loss of pressure in
(c) If analytical methods are used and
1977; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34212, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.931
(a) The critical speeds of any shafting
(b) If any critical speed lies within,
Section 27.935 Shafting joints.
Section 27.939 Turbine
(a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investi...
(b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...
(c) For governor-controlled engines,
1976]
Section 27.951 General.
(a) Each fuel system must be constructed and arranged to ens...
(b) Each fuel system must be arranged so that - 
(c) Each fuel system for a turbine engine must be capable of...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 47 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.952
1974]
Section 27.952 Fuel system crash resistance.
(a) Drop test requirements. Each tank,
50 feet.
(b) Fuel tank load factors. Except for
(i) Upward - 4g.
(i) Upward - 1.5g.
(i) Upward - 1.5g.
(c) Fuel line self-sealing breakaway
(i) The load necessary to separate a
25 to 50 percent of the minimum ultimate failure load (ultim...
(v) No breakaway coupling design
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 48 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.953
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
Section 27.955(a) and must comply with the fatigue
Section 27.571 without leaking.
(d) Frangible or deformable structural
(d)(1) of this section) is applied in the
(e) Separation of fuel and ignition
(f) Other basic mechanical design criteria. Fuel tanks, fuel...
(g) Rigid or semirigid fuel tanks. Rigid
Section 27.953 Fuel system independence.
(a) Each fuel system for multiengine
(b) If a single fuel tank is used on a
Section 27.954 Fuel system lightning protection.
(a) Direct lightning strikes to areas
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 49 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.963
(b) Swept lightning strokes to areas
(c) Corona and streamering at fuel
Section 27.955 Fuel flow.
(a) General. The fuel system for each
Section 27.1305(q).
(b) Fuel transfer systems. If normal operation of the fuel s...
(c) Multiple fuel tanks. If an engine
Section 27.959
Section 27.961 Fuel system hot weather operation.
Section 27.963
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to
(b) Each fuel tank of 10 gallons or
(c) Each fuel tank must be separated
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 50 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.965
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(d) Spaces adjacent to the surfaces of
(e) The maximum exposed surface
(f) Each fuel tank installed in personnel compartments must ...
Section 27.952, and must be adequate to withstand loads and ...
(g) Each flexible fuel tank bladder or
(h) Each integral fuel tank must have
1988; Amdt. 27-30, 59 FR 50387, Oct. 3, 1994]
Section 27.965 Fuel tank tests.
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to
(b) Each conventional metal tank,
(c) Each nonmetallic tank with walls
p.s.i. on surfaces not exposed to the acceleration loading.
(d) Each tank with large unsupported
(i) If no frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. w...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 51 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.971
(d)(3)(i) of this section.
20 complete cycles per minute through
Section 27.967
(a) Each fuel tank must be supported
(i) There are means for protection of
(b) Any spaces adjacent to tank surfaces must be adequately ...
(c) The location of each tank must
(d) No rotorcraft skin immediately
Section 27.969 Fuel tank expansion space.
Section 27.971 Fuel tank sump.
(a) Each fuel tank must have a drainable sump with an effect...
(b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 52 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.973
Section 27.973
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(a) Each fuel tank filler connection
(b) Each filler cap or filler cap cover
Section 27.975
(a) Each fuel tank must be vented
(b) The venting system must be designed to minimize spillage...
1988; Amdt. 27-30, 59 FR 50387, Oct. 3, 1994;
Section 27.977
(a) There must be a fuel stainer for
(b) The clear area of each fuel tank
(c) The diameter of each strainer
(d) Each finger strainer must be accessible for inspection a...
Section 27.991 Fuel pumps.
(a) Any one pump except pumps that
(b) Any component required for pump
Section 27.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
(a) Each fuel line must be installed
(b) Each fuel line connected to components of the rotorcraft...
(c) Flexible hose must be approved.
...
Page 53 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.997
Section 27.1013
(a) Be accessible for draining and
(b) Have a sediment trap and drain
(c) Be mounted so that its weight is
(d) Provide a means to remove from
1976; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34213, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.1011
(a) Each engine must have an independent oil system that can...
(b) The usable oil capacity of each
(c) The oil cooling provisions for each
1984; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34213, Sept. 2, 1988]
1988]
Section 27.999
Section 27.1013
(a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowes...
(b) Each drain required by paragraph
(a) of this section must - 
(i) That is readily accessible and
(a) It can withstand, without failure,
(b) [Reserved]
...
Page 54 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1015
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(f) There are means in the filler opening to prevent oil ove...
1974]
Section 27.1015 Oil tank tests.
Section 27.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
(a) Each oil line must be supported to
(b) Each oil line connected to components of the rotorcraft ...
(c) Flexible hose must be approved.
(d) Each oil line must have an inside
Section 27.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
(a) Each turbine engine installation
(b) Each oil strainer or filter in a
1984; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34213, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.1021
(a) Be accessible; and
(b) Have manual or automatic means
Section 27.1027 Transmissions
(a) The lubrication system for components of the rotor drive...
(b) Pressure lubrication systems for
27.1337(d).
...
Page 55 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1043
(c)(3) of this section; and
(i) The lubricant will flow at the normal rate through the r...
(d) For each lubricant tank or sump
(e) Splash-type lubrication systems
1999]
Section 27.1041
(a) Each powerplant cooling system
(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of
1988]
Section 27.1043 Cooling tests.
(a) General. For the tests prescribed
(b) Maximum ambient atmospheric temperature. A maximum ambie...
(c) Correction factor (except cylinder
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 56 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1045
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1976; Amdt. 27-14, 43 FR 2325, Jan. 16, 1978]
Section 27.1045
(a) General. For each stage of flight,
(b) Temperature stabilization. For the
(i) The temperatures must be stabilized under the conditions...
(c) Duration of test. For each stage of
1988]
Section 27.1091
(a) The air induction system for each
(b) Each cold air induction system
(c) If fuel can accumulate in any air
(d) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft - 
1968; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.1093 Induction system icing protection.
(a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air ind...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 57 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1121
(i) 100 degrees F.; or
(b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be
(i) Without accumulating ice on engine or inlet system compo...
30 minutes on the ground, with the air
(c) Supercharged reciprocating engines.
1976; Amdt. 27-12, 42 FR 15045, Mar. 17, 1977;
27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.1121
(a) There must be means for thermal
(b) There must be means to prevent
(c) Exhaust gases must discharge
(d) Each exhaust system part with a
(e) Exhaust gases may not impair
(f) If significant traps exist, each turbine engine exhaust ...
(g) Each exhaust heat exchanger
1977]
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 58 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1123
Section 27.1123
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
Section 27.1143
(a) Exhaust piping must be heat and
(b) Exhaust piping must be supported
(c) Exhaust piping connected to components between which rel...
Section 27.1141
(a) Powerplant controls must be located and arranged under S...
(b) Each flexible powerplant control
(c) Each control must be able to
(d) Controls of powerplant valves required for safety must h...
(i) Is in the fully open or fully closed
(e) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, no single failure...
(a) There must be a separate power
(b) Power controls must be grouped
(c) Each power control must provide
(d) If a power control incorporates a
(e) For rotorcraft to be certificated
1976; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988;
Section 27.1145
...
Page 59 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1187
(a) Separate control of each engine;
(b) Simultaneous control of all engines.
Section 27.1151 Rotor brake controls.
(a) It must be impossible to apply the
(b) There must be means to warn the
Section 27.1163 Powerplant accessories.
(a) Each engine-mounted accessory
(b) Unless other means are provided,
1984; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988]
Section 27.1183 Lines, fittings, and components.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph
(b) of this section, each line, fitting,
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to - 
(c) Each flammable fluid drain and
1967; Amdt. 27-9, 39 FR 35462, Oct. 1, 1974;
Section 27.1185
(a) Each fuel tank must be isolated
(b) Each tank or reservoir, other
(c) There must be at least one-half
(d) Absorbent materials close to
...
Page 60 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1189
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) Arranged so that no discharged
Section 27.1189 Shutoff means.
(a) There must be means to shut off
500 cu. in. displacement.
(b) There must be means to guard
(c) Each shutoff valve and its control
1968; Amdt. 27-20, 49 FR 6850, Feb. 23, 1984;
Section 27.1191 Firewalls.
(a) Each engine, including the combustor, turbine, and tailp...
(b) Each auxiliary power unit and
(c) In meeting paragraphs (a) and (b)
(d) Each firewall and shroud must be
(e) Each opening in the firewall or
(f) Each firewall and shroud must be
1968]
Section 27.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering.
(a) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be con...
(b) There must be means for rapid
(c) No drain may discharge where it
...
Page 61 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1195
Section 27.1305
Subpart F - Equipment
Section 27.1301
(a) Be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended func...
(b) Be labeled as to its identification,
(c) Be installed according to limitations specified for that...
(d) Function properly when installed.
Section 27.1303 Flight and navigation instruments.
(a) An airspeed indicator.
(b) An altimeter.
(c) A magnetic direction indicator.
Section 27.1305
(a) A carburetor air temperature indicator, for each engine ...
(b) A cylinder head temperature indicator, for each - 
(c) A fuel pressure indicator, for each
(d) A fuel quantity indicator, for each
(e) A manifold pressure indicator, for
(f) An oil temperature warning device
(g) An oil pressure warning device to
(h) An oil pressure indicator for each
...
Page 62 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1307
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(r) For each turbine engine, a warning means for the oil str...
(s) An indicator to indicate the functioning of any selectab...
(t) For rotorcraft for which a 30-second/2-minute OEI power ...
(u) For each turbine engine utilizing
30-second/2-minute OEI power, a device
(v) Warning or caution devices to signal to the flight crew ...
1974; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988;
27-37, 64 FR 45095, Aug. 18, 1999; 64 FR 47563,
Section 27.1307 Miscellaneous equipment.
(a) An approved seat for each occupant.
(b) An approved safety belt for each
(c) A master switch arrangement.
(d) An adequate source of electrical
(e) Electrical protective devices.
Section 27.1309 Equipment, systems, and installations.
(a) The equipment, systems, and installations whose function...
(b) The equipment, systems, and installations of a multiengi...
(c) The equipment, systems, and installations of single-engi...
1984; Amdt. 27-46, 76 FR 33135, June 8, 2011]
...
Page 63 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1322
(b) Each electrical and electronic
(c) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a fu...
(d) Before December 1, 2012, an electrical or electronic sys...
2007]
Section 27.1321 Arrangement and visibility.
(a) Each flight, navigation, and powerplant instrument for u...
(b) For each multiengine rotorcraft,
(c) Instrument panel vibration may
(d) If a visual indicator is provided to
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
27-13, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]
Section 27.1322 Warning, caution, and advisory lights.
(a) Red, for warning lights (lights indicating a hazard whic...
(b) Amber, for caution lights (lights
(c) Green, for safe operation lights;
(d) Any other color, including white,
(a) through (c) of this section, provided
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 64 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1323
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
Section 27.1323 Airspeed indicating system.
(a) Each airspeed indicating instrument must be calibrated t...
(b) The airspeed indicating system
(c) At each forward speed above 80
(d) For unpressurized rotorcraft,
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1977]
1977]
(a) Except as provided in paragraph
(b) of this section - 
(b) A magnetic nonstabilized direction indicator may deviate...
10 degrees due to the operation of electrically powered syst...
Section 27.1547(e).
Section 27.1325 Static pressure systems.
(a) Each instrument with static air
(b) Each static pressure port must be
(c) Except as provided in paragraph
(d) of this section, if the static pressure
...
Page 65 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1329
Section 27.1337
(a) Each automatic pilot system
(b) Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system m...
(c) Each manually operated control
(d) The system must be designed and
(e) If the automatic pilot integrates
(f) If the automatic pilot system can
1998]
Section 27.1335
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
Section 27.1337
(a) Instruments and instrument lines.
(i) Have restricting orifices or other
(b) Fuel quantity indicator. Each fuel
Section 27.959;
(c) Fuel flowmeter system. If a fuel
(d) Oil quantity indicator. There must
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
...
Page 66 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1351
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(e) Rotor drive system transmissions
1977; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988;
Section 27.1351 General.
(a) Electrical system capacity. Electrical equipment must be...
(b) Function. For each electrical system, the following appl...
(i) Free from hazards in itself, in its
(c) Generating system. There must be
(d) Instruments. There must be means
(e) External power. If provisions are
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1976; Amdt. 27-13, 42 FR 36972, July 18, 1977]
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 67 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1361
Section 27.1353 Storage battery design and
(a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as p...
(b) Safe cell temperatures and pressures must be maintained ...
(c) Compliance with paragraph (b) of
(d) No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any battery in no...
(e) No corrosive fluids or gases that
(f) Each nickel cadmium battery installation capable of bein...
(g) Nickel cadmium battery installations capable of being us...
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1977; Amdt. 27-14, 43 FR 2325, Jan. 16, 1978]
Section 27.1357
(a) Protective devices, such as fuses
(b) A protective device for a circuit
(c) Each resettable circuit protective
(d) If the ability to reset a circuit
(e) If fuses are used, there must be
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
27-13, 42 FR 36972, July 18, 1977]
...
Page 68 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1365
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) Load circuits may be connected so
(c) The master switch or its controls
Section 27.1365
(a) Each electric connecting cable
(b) Each cable that would overheat in
(c) Insulation on electrical wire and
1998]
Section 27.1367
(a) Able to carry its rated current;
(b) Accessible to the crew; and
(c) Labeled as to operation and the
Section 27.1381
(a) Make each instrument, switch,
(b) Be installed so that - 
Section 27.1383
(a) Each required landing or hovering
(b) Each landing light must be installed so that - 
(c) At least one separate switch must
Section 27.1385 Position light system installation.
...
Page 69 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1393
(d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed
(e) If the rear position light, when
1971]
Section 27.1389 Position light distribution
(a) General. the intensities prescribed
(b) Forward and rear position lights.
Section 27.1391 for the corresponding angles in
Section 27.1391 Minimum intensities in the
10Section to 10Section ...................
10Section to 20Section ...................
20Section to 110Section .................
110Section to 180Section ...............
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Section 27.1393 Minimum intensities in any
0Section ......................................................
0Section to 5Section ..........................................
...
Page 70 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1395
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
30Section to 40Section ........................................
40Section to 90Section ........................................
0.10
0.05
Section 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of ...
Section 27.1389(b)(3).
(a) Area A includes all directions in
...
Page 71 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1419
(d) Color. Each anticollision light
(e) Light intensity. The minimum
1976]
Section 27.1413
1978; Amdt. 27-21, 49 FR 44435, Nov. 6, 1984]
0.2 + (t 2  -  t1 )
Section 27.1415
(a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by ...
(b) Each raft and each life preserver
(c) Each raft released automatically
(d) Each signaling device must be
(f) Minimum effective intensities for
0Section to 5Section ..........................................
5Section to 10Section .........................................
10Section to 20Section ........................................
20Section to 30Section ........................................
1971; Amdt. 27-10, 41 FR 5290, Feb. 5, 1976]
...
Page 72 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1435
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(c) In addition to the analysis and
(d) The ice protection provisions of
(e) A means must be indentified or
Section 27.1435 Hydraulic systems.
(a) Design. Each hydraulic system
(b) Tests. Each system must be substantiated by proof pressu...
(c) Accumulators. No hydraulic accumulator or pressurized re...
Section 27.1457
(a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating ru...
(b) The recording requirements of
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 73 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1459
(c) Each cockpit voice recorder must
(i) Each microphone, headset, or
(d) Each cockpit voice recorder must
(i) That provides 10 Section1 minutes of
(e) The record container must be located and mounted to mini...
(f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a
(g) Each recorder container must be
(h) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data rec...
2008; 74 FR 32800, July 9, 2009; Amdt. 27-45, 75
Section 27.1459
(a) Each flight recorder required by
27.1327 of this part, as applicable;
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 74 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1461
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(b) Each nonejectable recorder container must be located and...
(c) A correlation must be established
(d) Each recorder container must:
(e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data rec...
2008; 74 FR 32800, July 9, 2009; Amdt. 27-45, 75
Section 27.1461 Equipment containing high
(a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragr...
(c), or (d) of this section.
(b) High energy rotors contained in
(c) It must be shown by test that
(d) Equipment containing high energy rotors must be located ...
Subpart G - Operating Limitations
Section 27.1501
(a) Each operating limitation specified in SectionSection 27...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 75 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1519
(b) The operating limitations and
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
Section 27.1503
(a) An operating speed range must be
(b) When airspeed limitations are a
Section 27.1505
(i) Section 27.65(b) for single engine helicopters; and
(i) A constant airspeed;
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
27-21, 49 FR 44435, Nov. 6, 1984]
Section 27.1509
(a) The never-exceed speed, VNE, must
(i) 0.9 times the maximum forward
(b) VNE may vary with altitude,
r.p.m., temperature, and weight, if - 
(c) For helicopters, a stabilized
(a) Maximum power-off (autorotation).
(b) Minimum power off. The minimum
...
Page 76 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1521
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
27.27, respectively, must be established
1984]
Section 27.1521
(a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this s...
(b) Takeoff operation. The powerplant
(i) The maximum value determined
(b)(3) of this section exceeds two minutes, the maximum allo...
(c) Continuous operation. The continuous operation must be l...
(i) The maximum value determined
(d) Fuel grade or designation. The minimum fuel grade (for r...
(e) Turboshaft engine torque. For
(i) The torque that the rotor drive
(f) Ambient temperature. For turbine
(g) Two and one-half-minute OEI power
21-2-minute OEI power must also be limited by - 
(i) The maximum value determined
(h) Thirty-minute OEI power operation.
30-minute OEI power must be limited
(i) The maximum value determined
...
Page 77 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1527
(i) Continuous OEI power operation.
(i) The maximum value determined
(j) Rated 30-second OEI power operation. Rated 30-second OEI...
Section A33.4 of appendix A of part 33.
(i) The maximum value determined
(k) Rated 2-minute OEI power operation. Rated 2-minute OEI p...
Section A33.4 of appendix A of part 33.
(i) The maximum value determined
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978; Amdt. 27-23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988;
Section 27.1523
(a) The workload on individual crewmembers;
(b) The accessibility and ease of operation of necessary con...
(c) The kinds of operation authorized
Section 27.1525
Section 27.1527
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 78 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1529
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
Section 27.1529 Instructions
Section 27.1541
(a) When markings are on the cover
(b) Each arc and line must be wide
Section 27.1545
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978; 43 FR 3900, Jan. 30, 1978; Amdt. 27-16, 43
Section 27.1547
(a) The rotorcraft must contain - 
(b) Each marking and placard prescribed in paragraph (a) of ...
Section 27.1543
(b) The following markings must be
(i) For rotocraft other than helicopters, at VNE; and
(a) Each airspeed indicator must be
(a) A placard meeting the requirements of this section must ...
(b) The placard must show the calibration of the instrument ...
...
Page 79 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1557
Section 27.1549 Powerplant instruments.
(a) Each maximum and, if applicable,
(b) Each normal operating range
(c) Each takeoff and precautionary
(d) Each engine or propeller range
(e) Each OEI limit or approved operating range must be marke...
1988; Amdt. 27-29, 59 FR 47768, Sept. 16, 1994]
Section 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator.
Section 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator.
Section 27.1555 Control markings.
(a) Each cockpit control, other than
(b) For powerplant fuel controls - 
(c) Usable fuel capacity must be
(d) For accessory, auxiliary, and
(e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, t...
1976; Amdt. 27-21, 49 FR 44435, Nov. 6, 1984]
Section 27.1557 Miscellaneous markings and
(a) Baggage and cargo compartments,
(b) Seats. If the maximum allowable
(c) Fuel and oil filler openings. The following apply:
...
Page 80 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1559
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(d) Emergency exit placards. Each
1976]
Section 27.1559 Limitations placard.
Section 27.1561 Safety equipment.
(a) Each safety equipment control to
(b) Each location, such as a locker or
Section 27.1565 Tail rotor.
Section 27.1581 General.
(a) Furnishing information. A Rotorcraft Flight Manual must ...
(b) Approved information. Each part of
27.1589, that is appropriate to the rotorcraft, must be furn...
(c) [Reserved]
(d) Table of contents. Each Rotorcraft
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
Section 27.1583
(a) Airspeed and rotor limitations. Information necessary fo...
(b) Powerplant limitations. The following information must b...
(c) Weight and loading distribution.
...
Page 81 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1587
(g) Altitude. The altitude established
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1968; Amdt. 27-14, 43 FR 2325, Jan. 16, 1978;
Section 27.1585
(a) Parts of the manual containing
(b) For multiengine rotorcraft, information identifying each...
(c) For helicopters for which a VNE
Section 27.1505(c), information must be furnished to explain...
(d) For each rotorcraft showing compliance with Section 27.1...
(e) If the unusable fuel supply in any
(f) Information on the total quantity
(g) The airspeeds and rotor speeds for
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978; Amdt. 27-16, 43 FR 50599, Oct. 30, 1978;
Section 27.1587
(a) The Rotorcraft Flight Manual
(d):
(i) The steady rates of climb and descent, in-ground effect ...
...
Page 82 - pdf   html   txt
Section 27.1589
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
Section 27.71.
(b) The Rotorcraft Flight Manual
Section 27.65(a)(2)(i).
1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c) of the
1655(c)))
1978; Amdt. 27-21, 49 FR 44435, Nov. 6, 1984;
33876, June 16, 2008]
Section 27.1589 Loading information.
(a) This appendix specifies requirements
(b) The Instructions for Continued Airworthiness for each ro...
(c) The applicant must submit to the FAA
(a) The Instructions for Continued Airworthiness must be in ...
(b) The format of the manual or manuals
(a) Rotorcraft maintenance manual or section.
(b) Maintenance instructions. (1) Scheduling
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 83 - pdf   html   txt
(c) Diagrams of structural access plates
(d) Details for the application of special inspection techni...
(e) Information needed to apply protective
(f) All data relative to structural fasteners
(g) A list of special tools needed.
1989; Amdt. 27-47, 76 FR 74663, Dec. 1, 2011]
(b) VNEI means instrument flight never exceed speed, utilize...
(c) VMINI means instrument flight minimum speed, utilized in...
(b) For single-pilot approval:
(i) The helicopter trimmed at VYI;
(i) The helicopter trimmed and power adjusted for level flig...
1.3 VMINI or 20 knots above trim speed, whichever is greater...
(i) the helicopter trimmed and power adjusted for level flig...
(i) The helicopter trimmed at 0.8 VH or 0.8
(i) The helicopter trimmed at the recommended approach speed...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 84 - pdf   html   txt
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
(c) Helicopters approved for a minimum
(b) During sideslips up to Section10Section from trim
(b) For helicopters approved with a minimum crew of two pilo...
(a) If a SAS is used, the reliability of the
(i) The controllability and maneuverability requirements in ...
(b) The SAS must be designed so that it
(a) Flight and Navigation Instruments. (1) A
(b) Miscellaneous requirements. (1) Instrument systems and o...
11:00 Mar 08, 2018
Page 85 - pdf   html   txt
(i) Only the required flight instruments for
(a) Limitations. The approved IFR flight envelope, the IFR f...
(b) Procedures. Required information for
(c) Performance. If VYI differs from VY,
2008; Amdt. 27-46, 76 FR 33135, June 8, 2011]
29.45(a) and (b)(2) - General.
29.49(a) - Performance at minimum operating
29.51 - Takeoff data: General.
29.53 - Takeoff: Category A.
29.55 - Takeoff decision point: Category A.
29.59 - Takeoff Path: Category A.
29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.
29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.
29.62 - Rejected takeoff: Category A.
29.64 - Climb: General.
29.65(a) - Climb: AEO.
29.67(a) - Climb: OEI.
29.75 - Landing: General.
29.77 - Landing decision point: Category A.
29.79 - Landing: Category A.
29.81 - Landing distance (Ground level sites):
...
Page 86 - pdf   html   txt
14 CFR Ch. I (1-1-18 Edition)
29.1587(a) - Performance information.
Section 27.1317. The field strength values for the
(a) HIRF environment I is specified in the
10 kHz-2 MHz ...................................
2 MHz-30 MHz .................................
30 MHz-100 MHz .............................
100 MHz-400 MHz ...........................
400 MHz-700 MHz ...........................
700 MHz-1 GHz ................................
1 GHz-2 GHz ....................................
2 GHz-6 GHz ....................................
6 GHz-8 GHz ....................................
8 GHz-12 GHz ..................................
12 GHz-18 GHz ................................
18 GHz-40 GHz ................................
2,000
...
Page 87 - pdf   html   txt
2007]
PART 29 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY
29.231
29.235
29.239
29.241
29.251
Subpart A - General
Subpart C - Strength Requirements
29.1 Applicability.
29.2 Special retroactive requirements.
29.301
29.303
29.305
29.307
29.309
Subpart B - Flight
29.21 Proof of compliance.
29.25 Weight limits.
29.27 Center of gravity limits.
29.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
...