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AIM 

6/17/21 

operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency 
122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position 
information. 

e.  ATC Clearances and Separation. 

An ATC 

clearance is required to enter and operate within 
Class B airspace. VFR pilots are provided sequenc-
ing and separation from other aircraft while operating 
within Class B airspace. 

REFERENCE

 

AIM, Paragraph 4

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18 , Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft 

NOTE

 

1. 

Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be 

suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is 
dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the 
service is not available and issued wind, runway 
information and the time or place to contact the tower. 

2. 

Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during 

CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to 
the primary airport will be provided on a workload 
permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when center 
radar presentation (CENRAP) is in use. 

1. 

VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR 

aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a 
minimum of: 

(a) 

Target resolution, or 

(b) 

500 feet vertical separation, or 

(c) 

Visual separation. 

2. 

VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR 

aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets 
by no less than: 

(a) 

1

/

2

 miles lateral separation, or 

(b) 

500 feet vertical separation, or 

(c) 

Visual separation. 

3. 

This program is not to be interpreted as 

relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and 
avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather 
conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path 
as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to 
maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clear-
ance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or 
better than the minimums required by 14 CFR 
Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised 
and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when 
compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or 
altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility 

with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, 
vortex exposure, and weather minimums. 

4. 

ATC may assign altitudes to VFR aircraft that 

do not conform to 14 CFR Section 91.159. 

“RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES” 

will be broadcast when the altitude assignment is no 
longer needed for separation or when leaving Class B 
airspace. Pilots must return to an altitude that 
conforms to 14 CFR Section 91.159. 

f.  Proximity operations. 

VFR aircraft operating 

in proximity to Class B airspace are cautioned against 
operating too closely to the boundaries, especially 
where the floor of the Class B airspace is 3,000 feet 
or less above the surface or where VFR cruise 
altitudes are at or near the floor of higher levels. 
Observance of this precaution will reduce the 
potential for encountering an aircraft operating at the 
altitudes of Class B floors. Additionally, VFR aircraft 
are encouraged to utilize the VFR Planning Chart as 
a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B 
airspace. Charted VFR Flyway Planning Charts are 
published on the back of the existing VFR Terminal 
Area Charts. 

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4.  Class C Airspace 

a.  Definition. 

Generally, that airspace from the 

surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation 
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have 
an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar 
approach control, and that have a certain number of 
IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although 
the configuration of each Class C airspace area is 
individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of 
a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the 
surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, 
and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower 
than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport 
elevation. 

b.  Charts. 

Class C airspace is charted on 

Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and 
Terminal Area Charts where appropriate. 

c.  Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment 

Requirements: 

1.  Pilot Certification. 

No specific certifica-

tion required. 

2.  Equipment. 

(a) 

Two-way radio; and 

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Controlled Airspace