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Protect declared national disasters for 

humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR 
Section 91.138). 


Protect the President, Vice President, or other 

public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141). 


Provide a safe environment for space agency 

operations (14 CFR Section 91.143). 


Except for hijacking situations, when the 

provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or (a)(2) 
are necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will 
only be established by or through the area manager at 
the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) 
having jurisdiction over the area concerned. A 
temporary flight restrictions NOTAM involving the 
conditions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) will be 
issued at the direction of the service area office 
director having oversight of the airspace concerned. 
When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary 
flight restrictions area will be implemented through 
the TSA Aviation Command Center. The appropriate 
FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a 
request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions 
area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1). 


The FAA accepts recommendations for the 

establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area 
under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military 
major command headquarters, regional directors of 
the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil Defense 
State Directors, State Governors, or other similar 
authority. For the situations involving 14 CFR 
Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts recommenda-
tions from military commanders serving as regional, 
subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR) coordina-
tors; by military commanders directing or 
coordinating air operations associated with disaster 
relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating 
organized relief air operations (includes representa-
tives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S. 
Forest Service, and State aeronautical agencies). 
Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight 
restrictions establishment under 14 CFR 
Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or 
by State, county, or city government entities. 


The type of restrictions issued will be kept to a 

minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement of 
the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the 
extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) 
include, but are not limited to: toxic gas leaks or 

spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by 
rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or 
property on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft 
could endanger persons or property in the air; 
imminent volcano eruptions which could endanger 
airborne aircraft and occupants; nuclear accident or 
incident; and hijackings. Situations which warrant 
the restrictions associated with 14 CFR Sec-
tion 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which are 
being fought by releasing fire retardants from 
aircraft; and aircraft relief activities following a 
disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR 
Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for 
events and incidents that would attract an unsafe 
congestion of sightseeing aircraft. 


The amount of airspace needed to protect 

persons and property or provide a safe environment 
for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally 
limited to within 2,000 feet above the surface and 
within a 3


mile radius. Incidents occurring 

within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will 
normally be handled through existing procedures and 
should not require the issuance of a temporary flight 
restrictions NOTAM. Temporary flight restrictions 
affecting airspace outside of the U.S. and its 
territories and possessions are issued with verbiage 
excluding that airspace outside of the 12

mile coastal 



The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the 

“coordination facility.” When FAA communications 
assistance is required, the designated FSS will 
function as the primary communications facility for 
coordination between emergency control authorities 
and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison 
for the emergency control authorities if adequate 
communications cannot be established between the 
designated FSS and the relief organization. For 
example, the coordination facility may relay 
authorizations from the on-scene emergency re-
sponse official in cases where news media aircraft 
operations are approved at the altitudes used by relief 


ATC may authorize operations in a temporary 

flight restrictions area under its own authority only 
when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR 
Section 91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate 
ARTCC/airport traffic control tower manager will, 
however, ensure that such authorized flights do not 
hamper activities or interfere with the event for which 
restrictions were implemented. However, ATC will 

Other Airspace Areas