7110.65R
b. Numbers above 9,900 must be spoken by
separating the digits preceding the word "thousand."
EXAMPLE-
1. 10,000 . one zero thousand
2. 13,500 . one three thousand five hundred
4. (Magnetic heading) 100 . heading one zero
zero
5. (Wind direction) 220 wind two two zero
4-2-11. Speeds
2. J533 . J Five Thirty-Three
The separate digits of the speed followed by the word
"KNOTS." Except, controllers may omit the word
"KNOTS" when using speed adjustment procedures;
e.g., "REDUCE/INCREASE SPEED TO TWO
FIVE ZERO."
d. All other numbers must be transmitted by
pronouncing each digit.
EXAMPLE-
(Speed) 250 . two five zero knots
(Speed) 190 . one niner zero knots
EXAMPLE-
10 . one zero
The separate digits of the Mach Number preceded by
"Mach."
e. When a radio frequency contains a decimal
point, the decimal point is spoken as "POINT."
EXAMPLE-
(Mach number) 1.5 Mach one point five
(Mach number) 0.64 . Mach point six four
(Mach number) 0.7 Mach point seven
c. Transmit airway or jet route numbers as follows.
EXAMPLE-
1. V12 . Victor Twelve
EXAMPLE-
122.1 . one two two point one
NOTE-
ICAO procedures require the decimal point be spoken as
"DECIMAL." The FAA will honor such usage by military
aircraft and all other aircraft required to use ICAO
procedures.
4-2-12. Time
4-2-9. Altitudes and Flight Levels
a. FAA uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
for all operations. The word "local" or the time zone
equivalent must be used to denote local when local
time is given during radio and telephone communica
tions. The term "Zulu" may be used to denote UTC.
a. Up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL, state
the separate digits of the thousands plus the hundreds
if appropriate.
EXAMPLE-
0920 UTC . zero niner two zero,
zero one two zero pacific or local,
or one twenty AM
EXAMPLE-
1. 12,000 . one two thousand
2. 12,500 . one two thousand five hundred
b. At and above 18,000 feet MSL (FL 180), state
the words "flight level" followed by the separate
digits of the flight level.
EXAMPLE-
1. 190 Flight Level One Niner Zero
2. 275 Flight Level Two Seven Five
4-2-10. Directions
The three digits of bearing, course, heading, or wind
direction should always be magnetic. The word
"true" must be added when it applies.
EXAMPLE-
1. (Magnetic course) 005 zero zero five
2. (True course) 050 zero five zero true
3. (Magnetic bearing) 360 . three six zero
4-2-6
b. To convert from Standard Time to Coordinated
Universal Time:
TBL 4-2-3
Standard Time to Coordinated Universal Time
Eastern Standard Time .
Central Standard Time .
Mountain Standard Time .
Pacific Standard Time .
Alaska Standard Time .
Hawaii Standard Time .
Add 5 hours
Add 6 hours
Add 7 hours
Add 8 hours
Add 9 hours
Add 10 hours
NOTE-
For daylight time, subtract 1 hour.
c. A reference may be made to local daylight or
standard time utilizing the 24-hour clock system. The
hour is indicated by the first two figures and the
minutes by the last two figures.
EXAMPLE-
0000 . zero zero zero zero
0920 . zero niner two zero
Radio Communications Phraseology