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AIM 

1/30/20 

c. 

At those airports where the U.S. Government 

operates the control tower and ATC has authorized 
noncompliance with the requirement for two

way 

radio communications while operating within the 
Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area, or at those 
airports where the U.S. Government does not operate 
the control tower and radio communications cannot 
be established, pilots must obtain a clearance by 
visual light signal prior to taxiing on a runway and 
prior to takeoff and landing. 

d. 

The following phraseologies and procedures 

are used in radiotelephone communications with 
aeronautical ground stations. 

1.  Request for taxi instructions prior to 

departure. 

State your aircraft identification, loca-

tion, type of operation planned (VFR or IFR), and the 
point of first intended landing. 

EXAMPLE

 

Aircraft:

 “Washington ground, Beechcraft One Three One 

Five Niner at hangar eight, ready to taxi, I

F

R to 

Chicago.” 

Tower: 

“Beechcraft one three one five niner, Washington 

ground, runway two seven, taxi via taxiways Charlie and 
Delta, hold short of runway three three left.” 

Aircraft:

 “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, runway 

two seven, hold short of runway three three left.” 

2.  Receipt of ATC clearance. 

ARTCC clear-

ances are relayed to pilots by airport traffic 
controllers in the following manner. 

EXAMPLE

 

Tower:

 “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared to 

the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain 
eight thousand.” 

Aircraft:

 “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared 

to the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain 
eight thousand.” 

NOTE

 

Normally, an ATC IFR clearance is relayed to a pilot by the 
ground controller. At busy locations, however, pilots may 
be instructed by the ground controller to “contact 
clearance delivery” on a frequency designated for this 
purpose. No surveillance or control over the movement of 
traffic is exercised by this position of operation. 

3.  Request for taxi instructions after landing. 

State your aircraft identification, location, and that 
you request taxi instructions. 

EXAMPLE

 

Aircraft:

 “Dulles ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six 

One clearing runway one right on taxiway echo three, 
request clearance to Page.” 

Tower:

 “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Dulles 

ground, taxi to Page via taxiways echo three, echo one, and 
echo niner.” 

or 

Aircraft:

 “Orlando ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six 

One clearing runway one eight left at taxiway bravo three, 
request clearance to Page.” 

Tower:

 “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Orlando 

ground, hold short of runway one eight right.” 

Aircraft:

 “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, hold short 

of runway one eight right.” 

e. 

During ground operations, jet blast, prop wash, 

and rotor wash can cause damage and upsets if 
encountered at close range. Pilots should consider the 
effects of jet blast, prop wash, and rotor wash on 
aircraft, vehicles, and maintenance equipment during 
ground operations. 

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19.  Taxi During Low Visibility 

a. 

Pilots and aircraft operators should be constant-

ly aware that during certain low visibility conditions 
the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may 
not be visible to the tower controller. This may 
prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence 
to taxi instructions. 

b. 

Of vital importance is the need for pilots to 

notify the controller when difficulties are encoun-
tered or at the first indication of becoming 
disoriented. Pilots should proceed with extreme 
caution when taxiing toward the sun. When vision 
difficulties are encountered pilots should immediate-
ly inform the controller. 

c. 

Advisory Circular 120

57, Low Visibility 

Operations Surface Movement Guidance and Control 
System, commonly known as LVOSMGCS (pro-
nounced “LVO SMIGS”) describes an adequate 
example of a low visibility taxi plan for any airport 
which has takeoff or landing operations in less than 
1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility 
conditions. These plans, which affect aircrew and 
vehicle operators, may incorporate additional 
lighting, markings, and procedures to control airport 

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Airport Operations