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AIM 

6/17/21 

l. 

If a missed approach is required, advise ATC and 

include the reason (unless initiated by ATC). Comply 
with the missed approach instructions for the 
instrument approach procedure being executed, 
unless otherwise directed by ATC. 

REFERENCE

 

AIM, Paragraph 5

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21 , Missed Approach 

AIM, Paragraph 5

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5 , Missed Approach, 

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8.  Special Instrument Approach 

Procedures 

Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) charts reflect 
the criteria associated with the U.S. Standard for 
Terminal Instrument [Approach] Procedures 
(TERP), which prescribes standardized methods for 
use in developing IAPs. Standard IAPs are published 
in the Federal Register (FR) in accordance with 
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 97, 
and are available for use by appropriately qualified 
pilots operating properly equipped and airworthy 
aircraft in accordance with operating rules and 
procedures acceptable to the FAA. Special IAPs are 
also developed using TERPS but are not given public 
notice in the FR. The FAA authorizes only certain 
individual pilots and/or pilots in individual 
organizations to use special IAPs, and may require 
additional crew training and/or aircraft equipment or 
performance, and may also require the use of landing 
aids, communications, or weather services not 
available for public use. Additionally, IAPs that 
service private use airports or heliports are generally 
special IAPs. FDC NOTAMs for Specials, FDC 
T-NOTAMs, may also be used to promulgate 
safety-of-flight information relating to Specials 
provided the location has a valid landing area 
identifier and is serviced by the United States 
NOTAM system. Pilots may access NOTAMs online 
or through an FAA Flight Service Station (FSS). FSS 
specialists will not automatically provide NOTAM 
information to pilots for special IAPs during 
telephone pre

flight briefings. Pilots who are 

authorized by the FAA to use special IAPs must 
specifically request FDC NOTAM information for 
the particular special IAP they plan to use. 

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9.  Procedure Turn and Hold

in

lieu of 

Procedure Turn 

a. 

A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed 

when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish 
the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final 

approach course. The procedure turn or hold

in

 

lieu

of

PT is a required maneuver when it is depicted 

on the approach chart, unless cleared by ATC for a 
straight

in approach. Additionally, the procedure 

turn or hold

in

lieu

of

PT is not permitted when the 

symbol “No PT” is depicted on the initial segment 
being used, when a RADAR VECTOR to the final 
approach course is provided, or when conducting a 
timed approach from a holding fix. The altitude 
prescribed for the procedure turn is a minimum 
altitude until the aircraft is established on the inbound 
course. The maneuver must be completed within the 
distance specified in the profile view. For a 
hold

in

lieu

of

PT, the holding pattern direction 

must be flown as depicted and the specified leg 
length/timing must not be exceeded. 

NOTE

 

The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or 
hold

in

lieu

of

PT when it is not required by the 

procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance 
from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC 
clearance intends for a procedure turn to be conducted or 
to allow for a straight

in approach, the pilot must 

immediately request clarification from ATC (14 CFR 
Section 91.123). 

1. 

On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow 

indicates the maneuvering side of the outbound 
course on which the procedure turn is made. 
Headings are provided for course reversal using the 
45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at 
which the turn may be commenced and the type and 
rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot (limited 
by the charted remain within xx NM distance). Some 
of the options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the 
racetrack pattern, the teardrop procedure turn, or the 
80 degree 

 260 degree course reversal. Racetrack 

entries should be conducted on the maneuvering side 
where the majority of protected airspace resides. If an 
entry places the pilot on the non

maneuvering side of 

the PT, correction to intercept the outbound course 
ensures remaining within protected airspace. Some 
procedure turns are specified by procedural track. 
These turns must be flown exactly as depicted. 

2. 

Descent to the procedure turn (PT) comple-

tion altitude from the PT fix altitude (when one has 
been published or assigned by ATC) must not begin 
until crossing over the PT fix or abeam and 
proceeding outbound. Some procedures contain a 
note in the chart profile view that says “Maintain 
(altitude) or above until established outbound for 
procedure turn” (See FIG 5

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16). Newer proced-

Arrival Procedures 

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