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6/17/21 

AIM 

a. 

Simultaneous dependent approaches are an 

ATC procedure permitting approaches to airports 
having parallel runway centerlines separated by at 
least 2,500 feet up to 9,000 feet. Integral parts of a 
total system are ILS or other system providing 
approach navigation, radar, communications, ATC 
procedures, and required airborne equipment. RNAV 
equipment in the aircraft or GLS equipment on the 
ground and in the aircraft may replace the required 
airborne and ground based ILS equipment. Although 
non

precision  minimums may be published, pilots 

must only use those procedures specifically autho-
rized by chart note. For example, the chart note 
“LNAV NA during simultaneous operations,” 
requires vertical guidance. When given a choice, 
pilots should always fly a precision approach 
whenever possible. 

b. 

A simultaneous dependent approach differs 

from a simultaneous independent approach in that, 
the minimum distance between parallel runway 
centerlines may be reduced; there is no requirement 
for radar monitoring or advisories; and a staggered 
separation of aircraft on the adjacent final course is 
required. 

c. 

A minimum of 1.0 NM radar separation 

(diagonal) is required between successive aircraft on 
the adjacent final approach course when runway 
centerlines are at least 2,500 feet but no more than 
3,600 feet apart. A minimum of 1.5 NM radar 
separation (diagonal) is required between successive 
aircraft on the adjacent final approach course when 
runway centerlines are more than 3,600 feet but no 
more than 8,300 feet apart. When runway centerlines 
are more than 8,300 feet but no more than 9,000 feet 
apart a minimum of 2 NM diagonal radar separation 
is provided. Aircraft on the same final approach 
course within 10 NM of the runway end are provided 
a minimum of 3 NM radar separation, reduced to 
2.5 NM in certain circumstances. In addition, a 
minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of three 
miles radar separation is provided between aircraft 
during turn on to the parallel final approach course. 

d. 

Whenever parallel approaches are in use, pilots 

are informed by ATC or via the ATIS that approaches 
to both runways are in use. The charted IAP also notes 

which runways may be used simultaneously. In 
addition, the radar controller will have the interphone 
capability of communicating with the tower 
controller where separation responsibility has not 
been delegated to the tower. 

NOTE

 

ATC will not specifically identify these operations as being 
dependent when advertised on the ATIS. 

EXAMPLE

 

Simultaneous ILS Runway 19 right and ILS Runway 19 left 
in use. 

e. 

At certain airports, simultaneous dependent 

approaches are permitted to runways spaced less than 
2,500 feet apart. In this case, ATC will provide no less 
than the minimum authorized diagonal separation 
with the leader always arriving on the same runway. 
The trailing aircraft is permitted reduced diagonal 
separation, instead of the single runway separation 
normally utilized for runways spaced less than 2,500 
feet apart. For wake turbulence mitigation reasons: 

1. 

Reduced diagonal spacing is only permitted 

when certain aircraft wake category pairings exist; 
typically when the leader is either in the large or small 
wake turbulence category, and 

2. 

All aircraft must descend on the glideslope 

from the altitude at which they were cleared for the 
approach during these operations. 

When reduced separation is authorized, the IAP 
briefing strip indicates that simultaneous operations 
require the use of vertical guidance and that the pilot 
should maintain last assigned altitude until intercept-
ing the glideslope. No special pilot training is 
required to participate in these operations. 

NOTE

 

Either simultaneous dependent approaches with reduced 
separation or SOIA PRM approaches may be conducted to 
Runways 28R and 28L at KSFO spaced 750 feet apart, 
depending on weather conditions and traffic volume. Pilots 
should use caution so as not to confuse these operations. 
Plan for SOIA procedures only when ATC assigns a PRM 
approach or the ATIS advertises PRM approaches are in 
use. KSFO is the only airport where both procedures are 
presently conducted. 

REFERENCE

 

AIM, Paragraph 5

4

16, Simultaneous Close Parallel PRM Approaches 

and Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) 

Arrival Procedures 

5

4

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