Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space

Volume: 1Date: 2021-01-01Original Date: 2021-01-01Title: Section Â§ 25.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.Context:
Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space. CHAPTER I - FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. SUBCHAPTER C - AIRCRAFT. PART 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES. Subpart C - Structure. - Ground Loads.

§ 25.511
Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.
(a)
General.
Multiple-wheel landing gear units are assumed to be subjected to the limit ground loads prescribed in this subpart under paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section. In addition—
(1) A tandem strut gear arrangement is a multiple-wheel unit; and
(2) In determining the total load on a gear unit with respect to the provisions of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, the transverse shift in the load centroid, due to unsymmetrical load distribution on the wheels, may be neglected.
(b)
Distribution of limit loads to wheels; tires inflated.
The distribution of the limit loads among the wheels of the landing gear must be established for each landing, taxiing, and ground handling condition, taking into account the effects of the following factors:
(1) The number of wheels and their physical arrangements. For truck type landing gear units, the effects of any seesaw motion of the truck during the landing impact must be considered in determining the maximum design loads for the fore and aft wheel pairs.
(2) Any differentials in tire diameters resulting from a combination of manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear. A maximum tire-diameter differential equal to
2/3
of the most unfavorable combination of diameter variations that is obtained when taking into account manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear, may be assumed.
(3) Any unequal tire inflation pressure, assuming the maximum variation to be ±5 percent of the nominal tire inflation pressure.
(4) A runway crown of zero and a runway crown having a convex upward shape that may be approximated by a slope of 1
1/2
percent with the horizontal. Runway crown effects must be considered with the nose gear unit on either slope of the crown.
(5) The airplane attitude.
(6) Any structural deflections.
(c)
Deflated tires.
The effect of deflated tires on the structure must be considered with respect to the loading conditions specified in paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section, taking into account the physical arrangement of the gear components. In addition—
(1) The deflation of any one tire for each multiple wheel landing gear unit, and the deflation of any two critical tires for each landing gear unit using four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and
(2) The ground reactions must be applied to the wheels with inflated tires except that, for multiple-wheel gear units with more than one shock strut, a rational distribution of the ground reactions between the deflated and inflated tires, accounting for the differences in shock strut extensions resulting from a deflated tire, may be used.
(d)
Landing conditions.
For one and for two deflated tires, the applied load to each gear unit is assumed to be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the limit load applied to each gear for
each of the prescribed landing conditions. However, for the drift landing condition of § 25.485, 100 percent of the vertical load must be applied.
(e)
Taxiing and ground handling conditions.
For one and for two deflated tires—
(1) The applied side or drag load factor, or both factors, at the center of gravity must be the most critical value up to 50 percent and 40 percent, respectively, of the limit side or drag load factors, or both factors, corresponding to the most severe condition resulting from consideration of the prescribed taxiing and ground handling conditions;
(2) For the braked roll conditions of § 25.493 (a) and (b)(2), the drag loads on each inflated tire may not be less than those at each tire for the symmetrical load distribution with no deflated tires;
(3) The vertical load factor at the center of gravity must be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the factor with no deflated tires, except that it may not be less than 1g; and
(4) Pivoting need not be considered.
(f)
Towing conditions.
For one and for two deflated tires, the towing load,
F
TOW,
must be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the load prescribed.

Code of Federal Regulations /
Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space /
Vol. 1 / 2021-01-01255