Code of Federal Regulations

Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space
Volume: 1Date: 2023-01-01Original Date: 2023-01-01Title: Section 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.Context: Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space. CHAPTER I - FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. SUBCHAPTER C - AIRCRAFT. PART 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES. Subpart D - Design and Construction. - Fire Protection.
§ 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion heater fire zones must be protected from fire in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§ 25.1181 through 25.1191 and §§ 25.1195 through 25.1203; (1) The region surrounding the heater, if this region contains any flammable fluid system components (excluding the heater fuel system), that could— (i) Be damaged by heater malfunctioning; or (ii) Allow flammable fluids or vapors to reach the heater in case of leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they leaked, would allow fuel or vapors to enter this region. (3) The part of the ventilating air passage that surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air passages. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained in the duct; and (2) Each part of any ventilating duct passing through any region having a flammable fluid system must be constructed or isolated from that system so that the malfunctioning of any component of that system cannot introduce flammable fluids or vapors into the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse flame propagation. In addition— (1) No combustion air duct may have a common opening with the ventilating airstream unless flames from backfires or reverse burning cannot enter the ventilating airstream under any operating condition, including reverse flow or malfunctioning of the heater or its associated components; and
Code of Federal Regulations / Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space / Vol. 1 / 2023-01-01307
(2) No combustion air duct may restrict the prompt relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure. (d) Heater controls; general. Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or safety control. (e) Heater safety controls. For each combustion heater there must be the following safety control means: (1) Means independent of the components provided for the normal continuous control of air temperature, airflow, and fuel flow must be provided, for each heater, to automatically shut off the ignition and fuel supply to that heater at a point remote from that heater when any of the following occurs: (i) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits. (ii) The ventilating air temperature exceeds safe limits. (iii) The combustion airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation. (iv) The ventilating airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation. (2) The means of complying with paragraph (e)(1) of this section for any individual heater must— (i) Be independent of components serving any other heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation; and (ii) Keep the heater off until restarted by the crew. (3) There must be means to warn the crew when any heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation has been shut off by the automatic means prescribed in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. (f) Air intakes. Each combustion and ventilating air intake must be located so that no flammable fluids or vapors can enter the heater system under any operating condition— (1) During normal operation; or (2) As a result of the malfunctioning of any other component. (g) Heater exhaust. Heater exhaust systems must meet the provisions of §§ 25.1121 and 25.1123. In addition, there must be provisions in the design of the heater exhaust system to safely expel the products of combustion to prevent the occurrence of— (1) Fuel leakage from the exhaust to surrounding compartments; (2) Exhaust gas impingement on surrounding equipment or structure; (3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment containing flammable fluid lines; and (4) Restriction by the exhaust of the prompt relief of backfires that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure. (h) Heater fuel systems. Each heater fuel system must meet each powerplant fuel system requirement affecting safe heater operation. Each heater fuel system component within the ventilating airstream must be protected by shrouds so that no leakage from those components can enter the ventilating airstream. (i) Drains. There must be means to safely drain fuel that might accumulate within the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition— (1) Each part of any drain that operates at high temperatures must be protected in the same manner as heater exhausts; and (2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, 1967; Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]