Code of Federal Regulations

Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space
Volume: 1Date: 2023-01-01Original Date: 2023-01-01Title: Section 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.Context: Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space. CHAPTER I - FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. SUBCHAPTER C - AIRCRAFT. PART 27 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT. Subpart E - Powerplant. - Induction System.
§ 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown that, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of 30 degrees F., and with the engines at 75 percent of maximum continuous power— (1) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 degrees F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate source of air, and that the preheat supplied to the alternate air intake is not less than that provided by the engine cooling air downstream of the cylinders; (3) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120 degrees F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of— (i) 100 degrees F.; or (ii) If a fluid deicing system is used, at least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system can operate throughout the flight power range of the engine (including idling)— (i) Without accumulating ice on engine or inlet system components that would adversely affect engine operation or cause a serious loss of power under the icing conditions specified in appendix C of Part 29 of this chapter; and (ii) In snow, both falling and blowing, without adverse effect on engine operation, within the limitations established for the rotorcraft. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes on the ground, with the air bleed available for engine icing protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a temperature between 15° and 30 °F (between −9° and −1 °C) and has a liquid water content not less than 0.3 gram per cubic meter in the form of drops having a mean effective diameter not less than 20 microns, followed by momentary operation at takeoff power or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle operation, the engine may be run up periodically to a moderate power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having superchargers to pressurize the air before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any altitude may be utilized in determining compliance with paragraph (a) of this section if the heat rise utilized is that which will be available, automatically, for the applicable altitude and operating condition because of supercharging. (Secs. 313(a), 601, and 603, 72 Stat. 752, 775, 49 U.S.C. 1354(a), 1421, and 1423; sec. 6(c), 49 U.S.C. 1655(c)) [Doc. No. 5074, 29 FR 15695, Nov. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 27–11, 41 FR 55470, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 27–12, 42 FR 15045, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. 27–20, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 27–23, 53 FR 34214, Sept. 2, 1988]
Exhaust System