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Airport Operations

pilot should inform ATC as soon as possible of any
delay on the runway during their stop-and-go or full
stop landing. The advantages of this procedure as a
training aid are that it enables an instructor or
examiner to obtain the reaction of a trainee or
examinee under changing conditions, the pilot would
not have to discontinue an approach in the middle of
the procedure due to student error or pilot proficiency
requirements, and finally it allows more flexibility
and economy in training programs. This procedure
will only be used at those locations with an
operational control tower and will be subject to ATC


−3−23. Use of Aircraft Lights


Aircraft position lights are required to be lighted

on aircraft operated on the surface and in flight from
sunset to sunrise. In addition, aircraft equipped with
an anti

−collision light system are required to operate

that light system during all types of operations (day
and night). However, during any adverse meteorolog-
ical conditions, the pilot

−in−command may

determine that the anti

−collision lights should be

turned off when their light output would constitute a
hazard to safety (14 CFR Section 91.209).
Supplementary strobe lights should be turned off on
the ground when they adversely affect ground
personnel or other pilots, and in flight when there are
adverse reflection from clouds.


An aircraft anti

−collision light system can use

one or more rotating beacons and/or strobe lights, be
colored either red or white, and have different (higher
than minimum) intensities when compared to other
aircraft. Many aircraft have both a rotating beacon
and a strobe light system.


The FAA has a voluntary pilot safety program,

Operation Lights On, to enhance the see


concept. Pilots are encouraged to turn on their landing
lights during takeoff; i.e., either after takeoff
clearance has been received or when beginning
takeoff roll. Pilots are further encouraged to turn on
their landing lights when operating below
10,000 feet, day or night, especially when operating
within 10 miles of any airport, or in conditions of
reduced visibility and in areas where flocks of birds
may be expected, i.e., coastal areas, lake areas,
around refuse dumps, etc. Although turning on
aircraft lights does enhance the see


concept, pilots should not become complacent about

keeping a sharp lookout for other aircraft. Not all
aircraft are equipped with lights and some pilots may
not have their lights turned on. Aircraft manufactur-
er’s recommendations for operation of landing lights
and electrical systems should be observed.


Prop and jet blast forces generated by large

aircraft have overturned or damaged several smaller
aircraft taxiing behind them. To avoid similar results,
and in the interest of preventing upsets and injuries to
ground personnel from such forces, the FAA
recommends that air carriers and commercial
operators turn on their rotating beacons anytime their
aircraft engines are in operation. General aviation
pilots using rotating beacon equipped aircraft are also
encouraged to participate in this program which is
designed to alert others to the potential hazard. Since
this is a voluntary program, exercise caution and do
not rely solely on the rotating beacon as an indication
that aircraft engines are in operation.


Prior to commencing taxi, it is recommended to

turn on navigation, position, anti-collision, and logo
lights (if equipped). To signal intent to other pilots,
consider turning on the taxi light when the aircraft is
moving or intending to move on the ground, and
turning it off when stopped or yielding to other
ground traffic. Strobe lights should not be illuminated
during taxi if they will adversely affect the vision of
other pilots or ground personnel.


At the discretion of the pilot-in-command, all

exterior lights should be illuminated when taxiing on
or across any runway. This increases the conspicu-
ousness of the aircraft to controllers and other pilots
approaching to land, taxiing, or crossing the runway.
Pilots should comply with any equipment operating
limitations and consider the effects of landing and
strobe lights on other aircraft in their vicinity.


When entering the departure runway for takeoff

or to “line up and wait,” all lights, except for landing
lights, should be illuminated to make the aircraft
conspicuous to ATC and other aircraft on approach.
Landing lights should be turned on when takeoff
clearance is received or when commencing takeoff
roll at an airport without an operating control tower.


−3−24. Flight Inspection/‘Flight Check’

Aircraft in Terminal Areas

a. Flight check

 is a call sign used to alert pilots and

air traffic controllers when a FAA aircraft is engaged
in flight inspection/certification of NAVAIDs and