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Arrival Procedures

1. Circling approach protected areas are defined

by the tangential connection of arcs drawn from each

runway end (see FIG 5−4−29). Circling approach

protected areas developed prior to late 2012 used

fixed radius distances, dependent on aircraft

approach category, as shown in the table on page B2

of the U.S. TPP. The approaches using standard

circling approach areas can be identified by the

absence of the “negative C” symbol on the circling

line of minima. Circling approach protected areas

developed after late 2012 use the radius distance

shown in the table on page B2 of the U.S. TPP,

dependent on aircraft approach category, and the

altitude of the circling MDA, which accounts for true

airspeed increase with altitude. The approaches using

expanded circling approach areas can be identified by

the presence of the “negative C” symbol on the

circling line of minima (see FIG 5−4−30). Because of

obstacles near the airport, a portion of the circling

area may be restricted by a procedural note; for

example, “Circling NA E of RWY 17−35.” Obstacle

clearance is provided at the published minimums

(MDA) for the pilot who makes a straight−in

approach, side−steps, or circles. Once below the

MDA the pilot must see and avoid obstacles.

Executing the missed approach after starting to

maneuver usually places the aircraft beyond the

MAP. The aircraft is clear of obstacles when at or

above the MDA while inside the circling area, but

simply joining the missed approach ground track

from the circling maneuver may not provide vertical

obstacle clearance once the aircraft exits the circling

area. Additional climb inside the circling area may be

required before joining the missed approach track.

See Paragraph 5−4−21, Missed Approach, for

additional considerations when starting a missed

approach at other than the MAP.

FIG 5−4−29

Final Approach Obstacle Clearance


Circling approach area radii vary according to approach category and MSL circling altitude due to TAS changes −

see FIG 5−4−30.