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surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels; 
operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 500 feet RVR 
and operations less than 500 feet RVR. 



Specific lighting systems and surface markings may be 
found in Paragraph 2


10, Taxiway Lights, and 

Paragraph 2


4 , Taxiway Markings. 


When low visibility conditions exist, pilots 

should focus their entire attention on the safe 
operation of the aircraft while it is moving. Checklists 
and nonessential communication should be withheld 
until the aircraft is stopped and the brakes set. 



20.  Exiting the Runway After Landing 

The following procedures must be followed after 
landing and reaching taxi speed. 


Exit the runway without delay at the first 

available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by 
ATC. Pilots must not exit the landing runway onto 
another runway unless authorized by ATC. At 
airports with an operating control tower, pilots should 
not stop or reverse course on the runway without first 
obtaining ATC approval. 


Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise 

directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the 
runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the 
runway edge and there are no restrictions to its 
continued movement beyond the runway holding 
position markings. In the absence of ATC instruc-
tions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing 
runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding 
position markings associated with the landing 
runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude 
into or cross another taxiway or ramp area. Once all 
parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding 
position markings, the pilot must hold unless further 
instructions have been issued by ATC. 




The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will 

permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or 
ramp area when required. 


Guidance contained in subparagraphs a and b above is 

considered an integral part of the landing clearance and 
satisfies the requirement of 14 CFR Section 91.129. 


Immediately change to ground control frequen-

cy when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi 




The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any 

potential conflictions with other ground traffic prior to 
advising the pilot to contact ground control. 


Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking. 

That clearance does not authorize the aircraft to “enter” 
or “cross” any runways. Pilots not familiar with the taxi 
route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC. 



21.  Practice Instrument Approaches 


Various air traffic incidents have indicated the 

necessity for adoption of measures to achieve more 
organized and controlled operations where practice 
instrument approaches are conducted. Practice 
instrument approaches are considered to be instru-
ment approaches made by either a VFR aircraft not on 
an IFR flight plan or an aircraft on an IFR flight plan. 
To achieve this and thereby enhance air safety, it is 
Air Traffic’s policy to provide for separation of such 
operations at locations where approach control 
facilities are located and, as resources permit, at 
certain other locations served by ARTCCs or parent 
approach control facilities. Pilot requests to practice 
instrument approaches may be approved by ATC 
subject to traffic and workload conditions. Pilots 
should anticipate that in some instances the controller 
may find it necessary to deny approval or withdraw 
previous approval when traffic conditions warrant. It 
must be clearly understood, however, that even 
though the controller may be providing separation, 
pilots on VFR flight plans are required to comply with 
basic VFR weather minimums (14 CFR Sec-
tion 91.155). Application of ATC procedures or any 
action taken by the controller to avoid traffic 
conflictions does not relieve IFR and VFR pilots of 
their responsibility to see


avoid other traffic 

while operating in VFR conditions (14 CFR 
Section 91.113). In addition to the normal IFR 
separation minimums (which includes visual separa-
tion) during VFR conditions, 500 feet vertical 
separation may be applied between VFR aircraft and 
between a VFR aircraft and the IFR aircraft. Pilots not 
on IFR flight plans desiring practice instrument 
approaches should always state ‘practice’ when 
making requests to ATC. Controllers will instruct 
VFR aircraft requesting an instrument approach to 
maintain VFR. This is to preclude misunderstandings 
between the pilot and controller as to the status of the 
aircraft. If pilots wish to proceed in accordance with 
instrument flight rules, they must specifically request 
and obtain, an IFR clearance. 

Airport Operations