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AIM 

6/17/21 

FIG 5

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Diverse Departure Obstacle Assessment to 25/46 NM 

EXAMPLE

 

TAKEOFF OBSTACLE NOTES: Rwy 14, trees 2011’ 
from DER, 29’ left of centerline, 100’ AGL/3829’ 
MSL. Rwy 32, trees 1009’ from DER, 697’ left of 
centerline, 100’ AGL/3839’ MSL. Tower 4448’ from 
DER, 1036’ left of centerline, 165’ AGL/3886’ MSL. 

NOTE

 

Compliance with 14 CFR Part 121 or 135 one

engine

in-

operative (OEI) departure performance requirements, or 
similar ICAO/State rules, cannot be assured by the sole use 
of “low, close

in” obstacle data as published in the TPP. 

Operators should refer to precise data sources (for 
example, GIS database, etc.) specifically intended for OEI 
departure planning for those operations. 

5. 

Climb gradients greater than 200 FPNM are 

specified when required to support procedure design 
constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or airspace 
restrictions. Compliance with a climb gradient for 
these purposes is mandatory when the procedure is 
part of the ATC clearance, unless increased takeoff 
minimums are provided and weather conditions 
allow compliance with these minimums. 

NOTE

 

Climb gradients for ATC purposes are being phased out on 
SIDs. 

EXAMPLE

 

“Cross ALPHA intersection at or below 4000; maintain 
6000.” The pilot climbs at least 200 FPNM to 6000. If 4000 
is reached before ALPHA, the pilot levels off at 4000 until 
passing ALPHA; then immediately resumes at least 200 
FPNM climb. 

EXAMPLE

 

“TAKEOFF MINIMUMS:  RWY 27, Standard with a 
minimum climb of 280’ per NM to 2500.” A climb of at least 
280 FPNM is required to 2500 and is mandatory when the 
departure procedure is included in the ATC clearance. 

NOTE

 

Some SIDs still retain labeled “ATC” climb gradients 
published or have climb gradients that are established to 
meet a published  altitude restriction that is not required for 
obstacle clearance or  procedure design criteria. These 
procedures will be revised in the course of the normal 
procedure amendment process. 

6. 

Climb gradients may be specified only to an 

altitude/fix, above which the normal gradient applies. 

An ATC

required altitude restriction published at a 

fix, will not have an associated climb gradient pub-
lished with that restriction. Pilots are expected to 
determine if crossing altitudes can be met, based on 
the performance capability of the aircraft they are op-
erating. 

EXAMPLE

 

“Minimum climb 340 FPNM to ALPHA.” The pilot climbs 
at least 340 FPNM to ALPHA, then at least 200 FPNM to 
MIA. 

7. 

A Visual Climb Over Airport (VCOA) 

procedure is a departure option for an IFR aircraft, 
operating in visual meteorological conditions equal 
to or greater than the specified visibility and ceiling, 
to visually conduct climbing turns over the airport to 
the published “climb

to” altitude from which to 

proceed with the instrument portion of the departure. 
VCOA procedures are developed to avoid obstacles 

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Departure Procedures